How is Kant’s transcendental idealism related to Berkeley’s subjective idealism?

How is Kant’s transcendental idealism different from Berkeley’s idealism? So the main difference is that while Berkeley would have to say that everything is subjective, because the mind is the only (ontological) reality that cannot be questioned, Kant’s transcendental (!) What is subjective idealism according to Berkeley? Subjective idealism made its mark in Europe in […]

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Was fascism ever philosophically appealing?

Who is the philosopher of fascism? Giovanni Gentile Giovanni Gentile, (born May 30, 1875, Castelvetrano, Italy—died April 15, 1944, Florence), major figure in Italian idealist philosophy, politician, educator, and editor, sometimes called the “philosopher of Fascism.” His “actual idealism” shows the strong influence of G.W.F. Hegel. Was fascism a modernist political movement? Raphel Costra argues […]

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What are/were the main criticisms of logical positivism?

One of the main objections raised by critics of positivism is an accusation of inconsistency; its fundamental principles, in fact, are propositions obviously not empirically verifiable and equally obviously not tautological. Who criticized logical positivism? In any event, the precise formulation of what came to be called the “criterion of cognitive significance” took three decades […]

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Computer vs brain in many-worlds interpretation of QM?

What does the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics suggest? The many-worlds interpretation (MWI) is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that asserts that the universal wavefunction is objectively real, and that there is no wave function collapse. This implies that all possible outcomes of quantum measurements are physically realized in some “world” or universe. Which […]

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Was Jan Smuts the father of Holism?

While in academia, Smuts pioneered the concept of holism, which he defined as “[the] fundamental factor operative towards the creation of wholes in the universe” in his 1926 book, Holism and Evolution. What was General Jan C Smuts stated about holism? Smuts defined holism as the “fundamental factor operative towards the creation of wholes in […]

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Is there a middle ground between determinism and libertarianism?

Filling the gap between determinism and libertarianism is compatibilism. Also called soft determinism, compatibilism is rather easy to remember. It proclaims that determinism and libertarianism can be compatible. What is the middle ground between determinism and free will? It tends to focus on an either-or scenario: either every choice and event is inevitably predetermined or […]

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‘Physical parts just can’t add up to a mental whole.’ : Why does Thomas Nagel assert this impossible?

How does Nagel define consciousness? According to Nagel, a being is conscious just if there is “something that it is like” to be that creature, i.e., some subjective way the world seems or appears from the creature’s mental or experiential point of view. Does Nagel believe in consciousness? Nagel is probably most widely known in […]

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What is the morality of a pregnant woman drinking alcohol?

Drinking alcohol during pregnancy is the leading known preventable cause of mental retardation and birth defects. It is clear that drinking while pregnant increases the risk of serious damage to the fetus, and there is no known safe level of alcohol consumption at any time during pregnancy. What happens if a woman drinks alcohol when […]

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What would Kant say about treating people who lack strength of will?

How does Kant distinguish between treating someone as a means and treating someone merely as a means? Kant is clear that in treating persons as means in the acceptable way outlined, we are also treating them as ends. Treating them merely as means excludes treating them as ends. There’s a difference between treating them as […]

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How are beliefs restricted by an objective reality?

What are objective realities? Objective reality means that something is actual (so it exists) independent of the mind. For example: while no one is nearby, a meteor crashes into a car, putting it on flames, leaving only a pile of ashes. What is an objective view of reality? Many philosophers would use the term “objective […]

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