Contents

## What is a elementary proposition?

4.22 An elementary proposition **consists of names**. It is a nexus, a con- catenation, of names. This obviously parallels Wittgenstein’s thesis about the nature of states of affairs: 2.03 In a state of affairs objects fit into one another like the links of a chain.

## What is an elementary proposition in logic?

Proposition: **a sentence that makes an assertion, a claim**. Premise: a proposition that conditions a conclusion. Syllogism: an argument with two premises leading to a conclusion. Valid Argument: one in which the conclusion follows from the premises.

## What is a true logical proposition according to Wittgenstein?

The core tenets of Wittgenstein’s logical atomism may be stated as follows: (i) **Every proposition has a unique final analysis which reveals it to be a truth-function of elementary propositions** (Tractatus 3.25, 4.221, 4.51, 5); (ii) These elementary propositions assert the existence of atomic states of affairs (3.25, …

## What is the necessity for introducing names according to Wittgenstein in Tractatus?

The theory of naming in the Tractatus.

Wittgenstein postulates the existence of simple objects as references for the names so as to guarantee the reference and meaningfulness of language. It is essential to names that **they are not analyzable any further, that they are indefinible**.

## What does Wittgenstein mean by fact?

**Facts are truths**. According to Wittgenstein, facts are as equally real as objects. Promissory note: we will say some more about facts in section 3 of the handout. 1.11 The world is determined by the facts, and by these being all the facts.

## What is Wittgenstein language games?

A language-game (German: Sprachspiel) is **a philosophical concept developed by Ludwig Wittgenstein, referring to simple examples of language use and the actions into which the language is woven**. Wittgenstein argued that a word or even a sentence has meaning only as a result of the “rule” of the “game” being played.

## What is pictorial form Wittgenstein?

Wittgenstein calls this **combination of elements in the picture the “structure” of the picture** and he calls the possibility of this structure “pictorial form” (2.15). That is, that a picture is the kind of thing that can arrange its elements in a certain determinate way is due to its pictorial form.

## What did Wittgenstein say about language?

Wittgenstein, who lived from 1889 to 1951, is most famous for a handful of oracular pronouncements: “**The limits of language are the limits of my world**.” “Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent.” “The human body is the best picture of the human soul.” They sound great; they are also hopelessly mysterious …

## What is the nature of object for Wittgenstein?

What does it mean to say that an object is simple? One thing Wittgenstein seems to mean is that **it cannot be analyzed as a complex of other objects**. This seems to indicate that if objects are simple, they cannot have any parts; for, if they did, they would be analyzable as a complex of those parts.

## What is a fact give one example of a fact?

The definition of a fact is something that is true or something that has occurred or has been proven correct. An example of a fact is that **the world is round**. An example of a fact is the detail about a driver texting while driving that is told to the court and reported in a news story.

## What is the difference between truth and fact?

A fact is something that’s indisputable, based on empirical research and quantifiable measures. Facts go beyond theories. They’re proven through calculation and experience, or they’re something that definitively occurred in the past. **Truth is entirely different; it may include fact, but it can also include belief**.

## What is the theory of logical atomism?

Logical atomism can thus be understood as a developed alternative to logical holism, or the “monistic logic” of the absolute idealists. The theory holds that the world consists of ultimate logical “facts” (or “atoms”) that cannot be broken down any further, each of which can be understood independently of other facts.

## What is logical empiricism in philosophy?

logical positivism, also called logical empiricism, a philosophical movement that arose in Vienna in the 1920s and was characterized by the view that scientific knowledge is the only kind of factual knowledge and that all traditional metaphysical doctrines are to be rejected as meaningless.

## What is atomic proposition?

An atomic proposition is **a statement or assertion that must be true or false**. Examples of atomic propositions are: “5 is a prime” and “program terminates”. Propositional formulas are constructed from atomic propositions by using logical connectives.

## What are the possible truth values for an atomic statement?

Abstract systems of logic have been constructed that employ three truth-values (e.g., **true, false, and indeterminate**) or even many, as in fuzzy logic, in which propositions have values between 0 and 1.

## What is a truth functional connective?

A truth-functional connective is **a way of connecting propositions such that the truth value of the resulting complex proposition can be determined by the truth value of the propositions that compose it**.

## Which is truth statement?

**A statement is logically true if, and only if its opposite is logically false**. The opposite statements must contradict one another. In this way all logical connectives can be expressed in terms of preserving logical truth.

## How do you determine the truth value of a proposition?

**Calculating the Truth Value of a Compound Proposition**

- For a conjunction to be true, both conjuncts must be true.
- For a disjunction to be true, at least one disjunct must be true.
- A conditional is true except when the antecedent is true and the consequent false.

## How many truth functions are there in symbolic logic?

two truth-

First, mathematics deals with numerical values such as 1,2,3 etc., whereas symbolic logic deals with truth-values. It is based upon only **two** truth-values, namely, truth (T) and falsity (F).

## What is a propositional statement that is always true?

A propositional statement that is always true is called **a tautology**, while a propositional statement that is always false is called a contradiction. For instance, the statement “I will eat my dinner or I will not” is a tautology, because it allows for either instance and therefore is always true.

## How do you tell if a proposition is true or false?

**The propositions are equal or logically equivalent if they always have the same truth value**. That is, p and q are logically equivalent if p is true whenever q is true, and vice versa, and if p is false whenever q is false, and vice versa. If p and q are logically equivalent, we write p = q.

## Which of the proposition is p ∧ P ∨ q is?

The proposition p∧(∼p∨q) is: **a tautology**. **logically equivalent to p∧q**.

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## How many different truth tables of compound propositions are there that involve the proposition p and q?

The statement’s two component propositions are: Proposition p: 2<5 (True) Proposition q: 2=5 (False)

Disjunction.

p |
q |
p∨q |
---|---|---|

T |
F |
T |

F |
T |
T |

F |
F |
F |

## Are the statements P → Q ∨ R and P → Q ∨ P → are logically equivalent?

Since columns corresponding to p∨(q∧r) and (p∨q)∧(p∨r) match, **the propositions are logically equivalent**. This particular equivalence is known as the Distributive Law.

## How do you build a truth table for compound propositions?

**Analyzing compound propositions with truth tables**

- Step 1: Set up your table. …
- Step 2: Write out all the possible combinations of truth values for each individual proposition. …
- Step 3: Complete the rest of the table using the basic properties or “and”, “or”, and negation. …
- Step 4: Bask in the glory that is your final answer.