What philosophers, other than Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, examine “will” first, before “free will”?

Who invented free will?

Alexander of Aphrodisias

According to Susanne Bobzien, the notion of incompatibilist free will is perhaps first identified in the works of Alexander of Aphrodisias (third century CE); “what makes us have control over things is the fact that we are causally undetermined in our decision and thus can freely decide between doing/choosing or not …

Why does Nietzsche reject free will?

Power of will

In Beyond Good and Evil Nietzsche criticizes the concept of free will both negatively and positively. He calls it a folly resulting from extravagant pride of man; and calls the idea a crass stupidity.

Will according to Schopenhauer?

According to Schopenhauer, the will is the ‘inner essence’ of the entire world, i.e. the Kantian thing-in-itself (Ding an sich), and exists independently of the forms of the principle of sufficient reason that govern the world as representation.

What is the definition of free will in philosophy?

free will, in philosophy and science, the supposed power or capacity of humans to make decisions or perform actions independently of any prior event or state of the universe.

Did Schopenhauer believe free will?

Schopenhauer means that our motives are determined but we are (in some sense) free to act on our motives. In Schopenhauer’s sense, free will is essentially autonomy, the ability to act according to internal drives without external constraint.

What is Schopenhauers philosophy?

Schopenhauer argues that the ability to transcend the everyday point of view and regard objects of nature aesthetically is not available to most human beings. Rather, the ability to regard nature aesthetically is the hallmark of the genius, and Schopenhauer describes the content of art through an examination of genius.

Did Schopenhauer believe in determinism?

Essentially, Schopenhauer claimed that as phenomenal objects appearing to a viewer, humans have absolutely no free will. They are completely determined by the way that their bodies react to stimuli and causes, and their characters react to motives.

Will to life Nietzsche?

Schopenhauer puts a central emphasis on will and in particular has a concept of the “will to live”. Writing a generation before Nietzsche, he explained that the universe and everything in it is driven by a primordial will to live, which results in a desire in all living creatures to avoid death and to procreate.

Does Schopenhauer believe in God?

In Berkeley’s idealism God holds the world together, enabling us to avoid chaos and experience a shared, orderly reality. But Schopenhauer is an idealist and an atheist.

How well did Schopenhauer understand Buddhism?

Arthur Schopenhauer was influenced by Indian religious texts and later claimed that Buddhism was the “best of all possible religions.” Schopenhauer’s view that “suffering is the direct and immediate object of life” and that this is driven by a “restless willing and striving” are similar to the four noble truths of the …

What does Schopenhauer say about religion?

Religion is the metaphysics of the people, which we must absolutely allow them and therefore outwardly respect; for to discredit it means to deprive them of it.

What did Schopenhauer say about God?

Schopenhauer’s Atheism

That having been said, atheism does seem to be a clear implication of Schopenhauer’s system: for given that this world is essentially blind eternal will to life, there does not seem to be any need for an intelligent and good God who creates this world.

Why does Schopenhauer prefer Eastern Hindu Buddhist explanations for the creation of the world?

Schopenhauer argued that Buddhism and Hinduism are the most truthful religions, because they both acknowledge the vanity of earthly existence and maintain that life is essentially suffering.

How did Kant influence Schopenhauer?

Since the principle of sufficient reason is – given Schopenhauer’s inspiration from Kant – the epistemological form of the human mind, the spatio-temporal world is the world of our own reflection. To that extent, Schopenhauer says that life is like a dream.

Is Schopenhauer an empiricist?

Like an empiricist, Schopenhauer accordingly asserts that “every concept has its value and its existence only in reference to a representation from per- ception” (WWR 1:65 [ASW 1:78]).

Did Schopenhauer believe that this world was the work of an all loving Creator?

The truth was that this world could not have been the work of an all loving Being, but rather that of a devil, who had brought creatures into existence in order to delight in their sufferings.

Why does Schopenhauer believe life is suffering?

But for Schopenhauer the real source of suffering for humans is the time-consciousness that distinguishes us from the animals. All living beings suffer physical pains and pleasures after all – but in not knowing past or future, animals “remain free from care and anxiety together with their torment.”