The “black swan fallacy” is an unfortunate name for a refusal to consider evidence that contradicts one’s belief, or to believe something that one hasn’t seen or experienced for oneself. It might better be called the “closed mind fallacy” or “self-serving skepticism.” It’s also a form of “invincible ignorance.”
What is the black swan fallacy?
The black swan theory or theory of black swan events is a metaphor that describes an event that comes as a surprise, has a major effect, and is often inappropriately rationalized after the fact with the benefit of hindsight.
What is black and white fallacy?
Black & White Thinking – the fallacy of leaping from the falsity (or undesirability) of one proposition to the truth (or desirability) of an extreme opposite – is identical in its basic logical structure to False Dichotomy.
Which scenario is an example of the black or white fallacy?
For example, “either it’s hot today or it’s cold today.” If an arguer confuses the latter with the former in the premiss of an argument, they may commit the Black-or-White Fallacy.
Is extrapolation a fallacy?
Propaganda Critic: Logical fallacies > Extrapolation. The tendency to make huge predictions about the future on the basis of a few small facts is a common logical fallacy.
What is round trip fallacy?
The round-trip fallacy involves inferring from the absence of evidence of an event the conclusion that there is evidence for the absence of this event.
Can black swans and white swans mate?
The black swans could mate with white swans as a hybrid has been successfully bred in captivity and is called a blute swan. These birds would be an extraordinary site but may not be the best outcome for the swan population.
What is a strawman fallacy?
This fallacy occurs when, in attempting to refute another person’s argument, you address only a weak or distorted version of it. Straw person is the misrepresentation of an opponent’s position or a competitor’s product to tout one’s own argument or product as superior.
What is the false dichotomy fallacy?
A false dilemma, also referred to as false dichotomy, is an informal fallacy based on a premise that erroneously limits what options are available. The source of the fallacy lies not in an invalid form of inference but in a false premise.
What is an example of an ad hominem fallacy?
A classic example of ad hominem fallacy is given below: A: “All murderers are criminals, but a thief isn’t a murderer, and so can’t be a criminal.” B: “Well, you’re a thief and a criminal, so there goes your argument.”
What is ad baculum fallacy?
Appeals to Emotion and Desire
The Latin term argumentum ad baculum means “argument to the stick.” This fallacy occurs whenever a person makes an implicit or explicit threat of physical or psychological violence against others if they refuse to accept the conclusions offered.
What is a non sequitur logical fallacy?
In fallacy: Material fallacies. (7) The fallacy of non sequitur (“it does not follow”) occurs when there is not even a deceptively plausible appearance of valid reasoning, because there is an obvious lack of connection between the given premises and the conclusion drawn from them.