What is the independent variable in the Wason 1968 experiment on the Wason Selection Task?

Subjects in the control group were instead merely prompted to think again about their initial selections (ie revise them) “because people often do this task too quickly and get it wrong”. Since Wason investigated how these changes in instructions affected behavior, they are the experiment’s independent variable.

What was the result of the experiment using the Wason Selection Task?

Solution. The correct response is to turn over the 8 card and the brown card.

What is the purpose of a Wason Selection Task?

One of the longest-running debates in modern psychology centers on the correct interpretation of the Wason Selection Task. Peter Wason originally designed the test to see if people applied logic that would disprove a hypothesis by falsifying it as well as by confirming it.

What is the idea of Wasons card and how it works?

Wason’s selection task is a problem designed to explore the ways people reason with conditional statements, those that can be expressed using “if.” It is one of a suite of reasoning problems invented by the British psychologist Peter Wason (1924–2003) and arose from his interest in, and curiosity about, firstly, the …

What did the results of the Griggs and Cox study show?

Questionnaire data obtained by Griggs and Cox (in press) demonstrated that the undergraduate student population from which their experimental subjects had been drawn had experience with the content of, the relationship for, and counterexamples to the drinking- age implication rule.

When the abstract version of the Wason four card problem is compared?

When the “abstract” version of the Wason four-card problem is compared to a “concrete” version of the problem (in which beer, soda, and ages are substituted for the letters and numbers), performance is better for the concrete task.

What are subjects asked in a typical Wason Selection Task?

The Wason selection test therefore evaluates subjects’ ability to find facts that violate a hypothesis, specifically a conditional hypothesis of the form If P then Q. In Wason’s test, four “facts” are presented in the form of cards.

Which of the following real world phenomena is best explained by confirmation bias?

Of the following real-world phenomena, the confirmation bias best explains the observation that people: can cite several reasons for their position on a controversial issue but none for the opposing side.

What is matching bias?

The phenomenon known as “matching bias” consists of a tendency to see cases as relevant in logical reasoning tasks when the lexical content of a case matches that of a propositional rule, normally a conditional, which applies to that case.

What is syllogism reasoning?

The word syllogism is derived from the Greek word “syllogismos” which means “conclusion, inference”. Syllogisms are a logical argument of statements using deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion. The major contribution to the filed of syllogisms is attributed to Aristotle.

What is the Wason four card problem?

The four-card problem (also known as the Wason selection task) is a logic puzzle devised by Peter Cathcart Wason in 1966. It is one of the most famous tasks in the study of deductive reasoning . The most common description of the task goes as follows.

What is the memory cueing hypothesis?

This so-called “memory-cueing” hypothesis stated that rather than facilitating the normative logical structure, domain-specific familiarity merely allowed participants to access their memory of counterexamples, obviating the need for domain-general logic.

Why do participants typically perform better with thematic rules as opposed to abstract rules?

Abstract rules are usually evaluated using logic while thematic rules are evaluated using logic and experience. People typically perform better with thematic rules than abstract rules because they have an additional source of information (experience) to help them.

What is the difference between an abstract rule and a thematic rule in this lab?

In the thematic case, then, you are not really using logic per se but rather your experience. In the abstract case, you cannot use your experience and have to rely solely on logic.

What type of search strategy is commonly used in the no flicker condition what type of search strategy is commonly used in the flicker condition?

What type of search strategy is commonly used in the flicker condition? In the no-flicker condition, type of search strategy commonly used is searching for the local-motion signal that is caused by a change in an object. In this case, the changing object is easy to be identified.

What strategy could one use to overcome the Stroop effect observed in this demonstration?

What strategy could one use to overcome the Stroop Effect observed in this demonstration? One would have to use a strategy that would prevent automatically reading the color words. For example, a participant could focus on one part of one letter of each word presented.

How can the Stroop effect be overcome?

A remarkable example of reducing Stroop interference is provided by the word blindness post-hypnotic suggestion (a suggestion to see words as meaningless during the Stroop task). This suggestion has been repeatedly demonstrated to halve Stroop interference when it is given to highly hypnotisable individuals.

How could we measure the strength of the illusion in the Muller Lyer illusion demonstration quizlet?

How could we measure the strength of the illusion in the Muller-Lyer Illusion demonstration? If a line with wings and a line without wings are perceived as having the same length then the line without wings is probably physically longer.

What is semantic priming in psychology?

Semantic priming refers to the observation that a response to a target (e.g., dog) is faster when it is preceded by a semantically related prime (e.g., cat) compared to an unrelated prime (e.g., car).

What is a semantic task?

A task in which the subject classifies stimuli based on meaning; the detection and classification of semantic relationships between worlds.

What is semantic Categorisation task?

In semantic categorization tasks, participants indicate which candidate items they consider members of a target category. The current study is concerned with the question of whether semantic categorization shows age-related differences and if so, what the nature of those differences is.

What is social priming?

Social priming occurs when exposure to a social concept or stimulus affects later behaviour. One problem is that there is no clear social component to much of what is defined as social priming (in priming with numbers or the idea of death, for example).

What is political priming?

Political media priming is “the process in which the media attend to some issues and not others and thereby alter the standards by which people evaluate election candidates“. A number of studies have demonstrated that there is a dimension of powerful media effects that goes beyond agenda setting.

What is a priming task?

In psychology, priming is a technique in which the introduction of one stimulus influences how people respond to a subsequent stimulus. Priming works by activating an association or representation in memory just before another stimulus or task is introduced.

What are the self presentation strategies?

One taxonomy of self-presentation strategies includes ingratiation, intimidation, self-promotion, exemplification, and supplication (Jones and Pittman 1982). Self-presentation is an important part of social life and is largely a prosocial way that individuals negotiate social interactions.

What is online self presentation?

Self-presentation is the process of self-portrayal, how an individual communicates with others about who they are. 1. One establishes a social reputation by making an impression through intentional self-expression. 2. This influence of perception has extended into the online world.

What is Goffman’s theory in the presentation of self?

Erving Goffman popularized the concept of perception management in his book, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life , where he argues that impression management not only influences how one is treated by other people but is an essential part of social interaction.