3. The Nature of the Distinction: The Beliefs of the Speaker? Perhaps the difference between the attributive use and the referential use lies in the beliefs of the speaker—in the case of the referential use, I believe that some particular thing fits the description and in the attributive use I do not.
What is the difference between referential and attributive uses?
In both uses of ‘The F is G’, it is in some sense presupposed or implied that something is F. But in referential uses, it is implied that some particular object o is F, whereas in attributive uses it is implied that something or other is F without this being implied of any particular object.
What is referential use?
Referential use is the use that a speaker makes of a definite noun phrase when he uses the content of the noun phrase to identify an individual.
Do definite descriptions refer?
On the Fregean analysis, definite descriptions are construed as referring expressions rather than quantificational expressions. Existence and uniqueness are understood as a presupposition of a sentence containing a definite description, rather than part of the content asserted by such a sentence.
What is attributive use?
Attributive use is the use that a speaker makes of a definite noun phrase to say something about whatever fits the description of the noun phrase.
What is attributive reference?
Suppose we come across the battered body of Smith, murdered by someone unknown to us. We might say, “Smith’s murderer is insane”, meaning by “Smith’s murderer” not any particular person but, rather, whoever it was that murdered Smith. This is the attributive use.
What is a definite description according to Russell?
Take as an example of a definite description the sentence “the current Emperor of Kentucky is gray”. Russell analyses this phrase into the following component parts (with ‘x’ and ‘y’ representing variables): there is an x such that x is an emperor of Kentucky.
What is Strawson view on description?
Strawson argues that the men in his example used the same sentence in two different ways: “the first man, in using the same sentence, made a true assertion, while the second man, in using the same sentence, made a false assertion.” From Strawson’s argument, it is also plausible to maintain that the two men nevertheless …
What is the referential theory of meaning?
The referential or denotational theory: The meaning of an expression is what it refers to or denotes. This theory of meaning emphasizes the relationship between language and objects. The ability of an individual word to specify an object is best seen in proper names, because the given name specifies only one thing.
What is the relationship between names and referents?
A referent (/ˈrɛfərənt/) is a person or thing to which a name – a linguistic expression or other symbol – refers. For example, in the sentence Mary saw me, the referent of the word Mary is the particular person called Mary who is being spoken of, while the referent of the word me is the person uttering the sentence.
What is reference and inference in pragmatics?
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN REFERENCE AND INFERENCE * Reference is an act in which a speaker or writer, uses linguistic forms to enable a listener or reader to indentify something Inference is connecting prior knowledge to text based information to create meaning beyond what is directly stated.
What is references in pragmatics?
Reference, as the act of the speaker/writer using a linguistic form to enable a listener/reader to identify something, depends on the speaker’s intentions (e.g. to refer to sth.) and on the speaker’s beliefs (e.g. so the listener can identify the speaker’s intention).
What is example of reference in pragmatics?
In • example (2), the hearer has to infer that the name of the writer of a book can be used to identify a book by that writer. In pragmatics, the act by which a speaker or writer uses language to enable a hearer or reader to identify something is called reference.
What’s the difference between referring and inferring?
As verbs the difference between refer and infer
is that refer is to direct the attention of while infer is to introduce (something) as a reasoned conclusion; to conclude by reasoning or deduction, as from premises or evidence.
What is reference in discourse analysis?
Reference indicates something that has already been said or will be said in the preceding or succeeding. sentence or clause that way creating cohesion. Every language has certain items which have the feature of reference. In English language reference appears in three forms: personals, demonstratives, and comparatives.
What is reference in semantics with example?
In semantics, reference is generally construed as the relationships between nouns or pronouns and objects that are named by them. Hence, the word “John” refers to the person John. The word “it” refers to some previously specified object. The object referred to is called the referent of the word.
What are inferences?
Definition of inference
- something that is inferred especially : a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence.
- the act or process of inferring (see infer): such as. …
- the premises and conclusion of a process of inferring.
What are 3 examples of an inference?
John hears a smoke alarm next door and smells burnt bacon. John can infer that his neighbor burnt her breakfast. Jennifer hears her mailbox close and her dog is barking. Jennifer can infer that the postal carrier has delivered her mail.
What are the two types of inference?
There are two types of inferences, inductive and deductive.
What are some examples of inferences?
Inference is using observation and background to reach a logical conclusion. You probably practice inference every day. For example, if you see someone eating a new food and he or she makes a face, then you infer he does not like it. Or if someone slams a door, you can infer that she is upset about something.
What are the 5 steps to make an inference?
How to Make an Inference in 5 Easy Steps
- Step 1: Identify an Inference Question. First, you’ll need to determine whether or not you’re actually being asked to make an inference on a reading test. …
- Step 2: Trust the Passage. …
- Step 3: Hunt for Clues. …
- Step 4: Narrow Down the Choices. …
- Step 5: Practice.
How do you identify inferences?
Making an inference involves using what you know to make a guess about what you don’t know or reading between the lines. Readers who make inferences use the clues in the text along with their own experiences to help them figure out what is not directly said, making the text personal and memorable.