What are the two formulations of Kant’s universalizability test?

Kant explains the universalisation formula, among other things, as follows: “Autonomy, i.e. the fitness of the maxim of every good will to make itself the general law, is itself the sole law which the will of every rational being imposes upon itself”. The connection between the formulas, whether some or all of them are as different developments of the same thought or they each express slightly different points of view in Kant’s thought, has not been conclusively clarified. This question is a frequently discussed problem in Kant’s literature.

What is the second of Kant’s two universalizability tests?

I would now like to explain the first formula – the universalisation formula – in more detail.
“Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time wish it to become a universal law”. (Immanuel Kant: AA IV, 421)
The universalisation formula is understood as the basis of the categorical imperative and is placed hierarchically above all others. It is also important to mention that Kant himself does not speak of a universalisation formula per se, but of the principle generality of a law. This is also where the key of the formula lies. In practical terms, this means that one considers a maxim, i.e. a principle of action, and then looks at whether one can want this maxim to become a general law for all. Two conditions play a fundamental role here: I can only want a law that is logical in itself, whose purpose is impeccable and which can apply generally. In this context, law is not necessarily understood as a legally binding regulation, but as a common connection between the maxim and all those who live by it.

What is Kant’s universalizability test?

According to Kant, morally correct actions are maxims. The maxims are understood as a principle that is to be applied categorically within the categorical imperative, i.e. without any restriction. However, in order for them to be morally correct, they must fulfil certain characteristics. Maxims must be universally valid, have an end that everyone considers desirable, arise out of duty, be free of personal inclinations and man must always remain the end of the moral action and not become the means. This means that one must not make one’s own mark by doing a good deed towards another individual, but should always make helping one’s own focus. Actions that fulfil all these characteristics are to be evaluated as morally right or good. These characteristics can be found in the formulas of the categorical imperative, more on this later. However, as soon as one of these principles is not fulfilled, the act is morally worthless, even though the act can still be good in principle. An example: A morally correct maxim according to Kant could be I should not lie. The maxim is universally valid, everyone can apply it, everyone can identify with the ideal behind the maxim and it is free of personal inclinations. If the motivation behind telling the truth is also correct, i.e. it is not a means to an end but an end in itself, the maxim is morally sound according to Kant. However, Kant does not see every fulfilled maxim as equally desirable; he also distinguishes between negative and positive duties.

What are the steps of the universalizability test?

Step 1: Identify the maxim of the action. Step 2: Determine whether this maxim is universalizable. to do Step 2, do these sub-steps … Step 2a: determine whether it is even possible for everyone to act on the maxim.

What are the three different formulations of the universal law Kant?

Kant’s CI is formulated into three different ways, which include: The Universal Law Formulation, The Humanity or End in Itself Formulation, and The Kingdom of Ends Formulation (Stanford) . The first to formulas combine to create the final formulation.

What are the 2 formulations of the categorical imperative?

Here are two formulation of Kant’s Categorical Imperative: CIa: Always treat persons (including yourself) and ends in themselves, never merely as a means to your own ends. CIb: Act only on that maxim that you can consistently will to be a universal law.

What are the formulations of the categorical imperative?

The first formulation of the categorical imperative says that an act is wrong if itsmaxim cannot be willed to become a universal law. The maxim of an action includeswithin it inclination or private interest. The maxim is to act a certain way to furtheror promote a certain interest.

How do you formulate a maxim Kant?

The moral status of an action must be determined by evaluating its maxim. A maxim is a rule that connects an action to the reasons for the action, i.e., a motivation/goal/context. So, when you formulate a maxim you must name the action and give the reason.

What is Kant’s humanity formulation of the categorical imperative?

The humanity formulation of Kant’s Categorical Imperative demands that we treat humanity as an end in itself. Because this principle resonates with currently influential ideals of human rights and dignity, contemporary readers often find it compelling, even if the rest of Kant’s moral philosophy leaves them cold.

What are Kant’s 4 formulations?

To illustrate the categorical imperative, Kant uses four examples that cover the range of morally significant situations which arise. These examples include committing suicide, making false promises, failing to develop one s abilities, and refusing to be charitable.

What are two of Kant’s important ideas about ethics?

Kant also argued that his ethical theory requires belief in free will, God, and the immortality of the soul. Although we cannot have knowledge of these things, reflection on the moral law leads to a justified belief in them, which amounts to a kind rational faith.