What are the key differences between Plato’s Republic and Zeno’s?

What is the main point of Plato’s The Republic?

The Republic by Plato is a text that describes the importance of being just in the world, and by being just, one is happy. It is a text that describes an ideal city and a way through which a just and philosophical governance can create happiness.

Did Zeno write the republic?

The Republic (Koinē Greek: Πολιτεία) was a work written by Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoic philosophy at the beginning of the 3rd century BC. Although it has not survived, it was his most famous work, and various quotes and paraphrases were preserved by later writers.

What is Plato’s thesis in the Republic?

Plato took after his teacher Socrates who was also a philosopher. In the Republic, Plato focuses on justice and its application in the societal institutions. He further goes to describe his ideal society with justice being the main theme of the book.

What did Zeno write?

The most famous of his works was Zeno’s Republic, written in conscious imitation of, or opposition to, Plato’s Republic. Although it has not survived, more is known about it than any of his other works. It outlined Zeno’s vision of the ideal Stoic society.

What are the four virtues in Plato’s Republic?

The catalogue of what in later tradition has been dubbed ‘the four cardinal Platonic virtues’ – wisdom, courage, moderation, and justice – is first presented without comment.

What were the main ideas of Plato?

Plato believed that reality is divided into two parts: the ideal and the phenomena. The ideal is the perfect reality of existence. The phenomena are the physical world that we experience; it is a flawed echo of the perfect, ideal model that exists outside of space and time. Plato calls the perfect ideal the Forms.

What is the central question of Plato’s Republic?

He does this to address the second and driving question of the dialogue: “is the just person happier than the unjust person?” or “what is the relation of justice to happiness?” Given the two central questions of the discussion, Plato’s philosophical concerns in the dialogue are ethical and political.

What are the 3 classes in Plato’s Republic?

Plato divides his just society into three classes: the producers, the auxiliaries, and the guardians.

What are the 3 parts of soul according to Plato?

According to Plato, the three parts of the soul are the rational, spirited and appetitive parts. The rational part corresponds to the guardians in that it performs the executive function in a soul just as it does in a city.

What Plato thinks about God?

To Plato, God is transcendent-the highest and most perfect being-and one who uses eternal forms, or archetypes, to fashion a universe that is eternal and uncreated. The order and purpose he gives the universe is limited by the imperfections inherent in material.

What are Aristotle’s 4 virtues?

In order for one to be virtuous they must display prudence, temperance, courage, and justice; moreover, they have to display all four of them and not just one or two to be virtuous.

What are the 4 virtues of stoicism?

The Stoics elaborated a detailed taxonomy of virtue, dividing virtue into four main types: wisdom, justice, courage, and moderation.

What are the 4 virtues of Confucianism?

In descending order of importance, the virtues are benevolence or ren (仁), righteousness or yi (义), propriety or li (理), wisdom or zhi (智) and fidelity or xin (信).

What was the fourth basic virtue that brings harmony which Plato said that balance the other three basic virtues?

Having determined three of the four virtues, only the fourth virtue, justice, remains. We recall that the responsibility of each member of each class is that he attend strictly to the business of that class, that each member fulfill the job assigned him.

How did Plato make a connection between the Republic and the human soul?

So his account of what justice is depends upon his account of the human soul. According to the Republic, every human soul has three parts: reason, spirit, and appetite. (This is a claim about the embodied soul.

Where does Plato talk about virtue in the republic?

Plato (429?-347 BC) (through Socrates) in Book 4 of the Republic presents a theory, which states that the human soul has three main faculties: reason, spirit, and appetite (see also [1.2. 2], [1.2. 5]). Based on this, he works out the idea of the four cardinal virtues, namely wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice.

What did Plato think should rule the soul?

Plato argues that the soul comprises of three parts namely rational, appetitive, and the spirited. These parts also match up the three ranks of a just community. Personal justice involves maintaining the three parts in the proper balance, where reason rules while appetite obeys.

What did Plato divided the soul into?

Plato said that even after death, the soul exists and is able to think. He believed that as bodies die, the soul is continually reborn (metempsychosis) in subsequent bodies. Plato divided the soul into three parts: the logistikon (reason), the thymoeides (spirit), and the epithymetikon (appetite).

Did Plato believe in the afterlife?

In ancient Western philosophy, Plato affirmed both a pre-natal life of the soul and the soul’s continued life after the death of the body.

How did Plato explain the human person?

Plato viewed human beings as inherently rational, social souls burdened by imprisonment within their physical bodies. According to him, the soul or mind attains knowledge of the forms, as opposed to the senses.

Did Plato believe in nature or nurture?

Since the time of the Greeks, philosophers and scientists have wondered about the origins of structure and function. Plato proposed that the origins of structure and function lie in the organism’s nature whereas Aristotle proposed that they lie in its nurture.

What is Plato theory?

Definition of The Theory of Forms

In basic terms, Plato’s Theory of Forms asserts that the physical world is not really the ‘real’ world; instead, ultimate reality exists beyond our physical world. Plato discusses this theory in a few different dialogues, including the most famous one, called ‘The Republic.

What is Plato’s theory of self?

In Plato, the ‘true self’ is discussed in the context of knowledge and embodiment, and involves the view that we acquire our true self when we activate our latent knowledge of the Forms. The question is whether the sheer fact of embodied existence does not raise an insurmountable obstacle to our reaching this state.