What are the counterexamples to Kant’s argument that existence is not a predicate?

What did Kant say about existence?

Kant states it briefly: “If anything exists, an absolutely necessary being must also exist” (B633).

Can existence be treated as a predicate?

In free logic existence is, in fact, treated as a predicate. If there is really no other legitimate role in philosophical theory for “properties” other than their role in semantics, which is to provide a referent for predicates, it seems to follow that existence is a property.

Why Is existence a predicate?

That some philosophers have taken the word ” existence ” to stand for a predicate in the logical sense, i.e., for an attribute, may be seen from their use of the ontological argument to prove the existence of God. * The Philosophical Works of Descartes, ed.

Who argued that existence is not a predicate quizlet?

One of the most famous objections came hundreds of years after Anselm’s time, from the 18th century German philosopher Immanuel Kant. Kant offered the point that, as he put it, “existence is not a predicate.” A predicate is just something that’s said of another object.

Where did Kant say existence is not a predicate?

In Only Possible Ground Kant objects to the ontological argument that “existence is not a predicate or a determination of a thing” (2:72) and in the first Critique he writes that “being is obviously not a real predicate” (A598/B626).

Who said existence is not a predicate?


But Kant’s talk here of merely possible beings having predicates would indicate that that interpretation is mistaken. predicate it would have were it an actual being, but (since it is a merely possible being) it would not have existence; (3) Therefore, if N were to exist, existence would not be one of its predicates.

What does predicate mean in philosophy?

Predication in philosophy refers to an act of judgement where one term is subsumed under another.

Why is existence not a property?

Existence is not a property (in, say, the way that being red is a property of an apple). Rather it is a precondition for the instantiation of properties in the following sense: it is not possible for a non-existent thing to instantiate any properties because there is nothing to which, so to speak, a property can stick.

Is existence a predicate Moore?

Again, Moore was critical of Russell’s treatment of existence, in particular his denial that it makes sense to treat existence as a first-order predicate of particular objects (for Russell, existence has to be expressed by the existential quantifier and is therefore a second-order predicate of predicates).

What are Kant’s criticisms of the ontological argument?

Perhaps the best known criticisms of ontological arguments are due to Immanuel Kant, in his Critique of Pure Reason. Most famously, Kant claims that ontological arguments are vitiated by their reliance upon the implicit assumption that “existence” is a real predicate.
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What was Kant’s objection to the ontological argument?

Abstract: The most famous objection to the ontological argument is given in Kant’s dictum that existence is not a real predicate.

CAN was be a predicate?

The linking verb, “was”, begins the predicate and is followed by a predicate adjective that describes how the subject is feeling. Predicate nominatives also follow linking verbs, but these are used to rename or label the subject with another noun.

Is existence a predicate Reddit?

This is what I understand: Existence in English seems to work like a predicate, but for some reason it is not a predicate when it comes to logic. My understanding of predicates is that they are properties which are ascribed to something.

How can I exist without existing?

39 Ways to Live, and Not Merely Exist

  1. Love. Perhaps the most important. …
  2. Get outside. Don’t let yourself be shut indoors. …
  3. Savor food. Don’t just eat your food, but really enjoy it. …
  4. Create a morning ritual. Wake early and greet the day. …
  5. Take chances. …
  6. Follow excitement. …
  7. Find your passion. …
  8. Get out of your cubicle.

How do you define existence?

Definition of existence
1a : the state or fact of having being especially independently of human consciousness and as contrasted with nonexistence the existence of other worlds. b : the manner of being that is common to every mode of being.

What is the difference between living and merely existing?

Existing refers to remain alive or continue to be; in simple terms, it can be described as doing what is necessary to stay alive. When compared to existing, living means to enjoy your life and savour every movement of it. This is the key difference between living and existing.

What does it mean to not exist?

: not in actual or present occurrence : not existing …

What is it called when one thing Cannot exist without the other?

(sɪnɒnɪməs ) adjective. If you say that one thing is synonymous with another, you mean that the two things are very closely associated with each other so that one suggests the other or one cannot exist without the other.

How do you describe something that does not exist?

Saying something is nonexistent is the same as saying that it doesn’t exist. It can mean that the thing never existed, or that it did exist but doesn’t anymore. Nonexistent doesn’t have a lot of close, single-word synonyms.