The Gettier counter-example: How to formalize its crucial entailment?

What is an example of a gettier case?

Here’s another Gettier case: You have a justified belief that someone in your office owns a Ford. And as it happens it’s true that someone in your office owns a Ford. However, your evidence for your belief all concerns Nogot, who as it turns out owns no Ford.

How do you solve the Gettier problem?

The second sense in which the Gettier problem might be solved involves developing a new theory or analysis of knowledge that is not subject to Gettier-type refutation. Not surprisingly, solutions of this second kind also frequently result in the generation of new, higher-level Gettier examples.

Do the Gettier examples establish that knowledge is not justified true belief?

On the face of it, Gettier cases do indeed show only that not all actual or possible justified true beliefs are knowledge — rather than that a belief’s being justified and true is never enough for its being knowledge.

What is the gettier problem and how does it challenge Plato’s definition of knowledge?

The Gettier problem, in the field of epistemology, is a landmark philosophical problem concerning the understanding of descriptive knowledge. Attributed to American philosopher Edmund Gettier, Gettier-type counterexamples (called “Gettier-cases”) challenge the long-held justified true belief (JTB) account of knowledge.

How do you make a gettier case?

  1. One way to understand Gettier cases involves knowing how to make them. …
  2. Step 1: select any false proposition, P, for which some believer A has ample justification.
  3. Step 2: generalize away from P using a principle of deductive logic to a claim Q that is true but not for the reasons adduced by A in support of P.
  4. What is Gettier argument?

    Gettier presented two cases in which a true belief is inferred from a justified false belief. He observed that, intuitively, such beliefs cannot be knowledge; it is merely lucky that they are true. In honour of his contribution to the literature, cases like these have come to be known as “Gettier cases”.

    What is the gettier problem for dummies?

    A Gettier problem is any example that demonstrates that an individual can satisfy the classical analysis of knowledge – justified true belief – without possessing knowledge.

    Does knowledge equal justified true belief yes or no why why not?

    True belief is not sufficient for knowledge; since a belief can be true by accident or lucky guesswork, and knowledge cannot be a matter of luck or accident. 2. So knowledge requires justification—i.e., having sufficient reasons for one’s beliefs.

    How would you explain knowledge as justified true belief?

    According to Adrian Haddock, knowledge is justified true belief where the justification condition is factive (one cannot justifiably believe that p when p is false) and requires moreover that the fact that provides justification is known by the subject.

    What is the conclusion Gettier is trying to defend?

    Gettier’s conclusion. The Gettier Counter-examples show that the definition of knowledge given in the JTB account does not state a sufficient condition for someone’s knowing a given proposition.

    What makes justification an important condition for knowledge?

    To put it another way, the justification condition was meant to ensure that knowledge was based on solid evidence rather than on luck or misinformation, but Gettier-type examples seem to show that justified true belief can still involve luck and thus fall short of knowledge.

    How do you write a justification example?

    How to Write a Justification Report

    1. Provide an Overview. A opening overview should briefly summarize what will follow in the justification report. …
    2. Describe the Problem. …
    3. Offer a Solution. …
    4. Describe the Role You Will Play. …
    5. Show the Payoff.

    What is an example of justification?

    The definition of justification is something that proves, explains or supports. An example of justification is an employer bringing evidence to support why they fired an employee. Something, such as a fact or circumstance, that justifies. Considered misgovernment to be a justification for revolution.

    What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge?

    Logically Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Knowledge

    A logically necessary condition for something to be the case is one without which the thing could not possibly be the case; and a logically sufficient condition for something to be the case is one given which the thing absolutely must be the case.

    What is the difference between necessary and sufficient conditions examples?

    For example, being a male is a necessary condition for being a brother, but it is not sufficient—while being a male sibling is a necessary and sufficient condition for being a brother.

    Which is a necessary condition for critical thinking?

    Necessary and sufficient conditions help us understand and explain the connections between concepts, and how different situations are related to each other. To say that X is a necessary condition for Y is to say that the occurrence of X is required for the occurrence of Y (sometimes also called an essential condition).

    Which of the following is an example of a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition?

    Sam’s being a male is a necessary, but not a sufficient condition, for being a father.” “A table’s having four sides is a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for its being square.”

    What is an example of sufficient?

    The definition of sufficient is enough or as much as is needed. An example of sufficient is when you have just enough food. Possessing adequate talents or accomplishments; of competent power or ability; qualified; fit. A two-week training course is sufficient to get a job in the coach-driving profession.

    What is something that is sufficient but not necessary?

    One might gain weight by not exercising enough. So, while the given condition of eating too many sweets is a sufficient one to gain weight but by no means is it a necessary one. The occurrence of the result might take place by the fulfillment of similar other sufficient conditions.

    What are examples of conditions?

    The definition of condition is the state something or someone is in or can also refer to a specific illness. An example of condition is a brand new sofa with no defects. An example of a condition is a harsh work environment. An example of a condition is a cold or the flu.

    What is the meaning of on condition?

    When you agree to do something on condition that something else happens, you mean that you will only do it if this other thing also happens. He agreed to speak to reporters on condition that he was not identified. Synonyms: provided that, if, on the understanding that, as long as More Synonyms of on condition that.