Term/theory of psychological effect: asking for counter-arguments without (ever thinking of) considering them in decision


What is the theory of cognitive dissonance?

Cognitive dissonance theory postulates that an underlying psychological tension is created when an individual’s behavior is inconsistent with his or her thoughts and beliefs. This underlying tension then motivates an individual to make an attitude change that would produce consistency between thoughts and behaviors.

What does dissonance mean in psychology?

The term cognitive dissonance is used to describe the mental discomfort that results from holding two conflicting beliefs, values, or attitudes. People tend to seek consistency in their attitudes and perceptions, so this conflict causes feelings of unease or discomfort.

What are some examples of cognitive dissonance?

Here’s a look at some common examples of cognitive dissonance and how you might come to terms with them.

  • Picking up after your dog. Let’s say you have a dog that you take for daily walks around your neighborhood. …
  • Getting enough exercise. …
  • Moving for love. …
  • Being productive at work. …
  • Eating meat.

What is confirmation bias psychology?

Confirmation bias, as the term is typically used in the psychological literature, connotes the seeking or interpreting of evidence in ways that are partial to existing beliefs, expectations, or a hypothesis in hand.

What is cognitive theory?

Cognitive theories are characterized by their focus on the idea that how and what people think leads to the arousal of emotions and that certain thoughts and beliefs lead to disturbed emotions and behaviors and others lead to healthy emotions and adaptive behavior.

What does the theory of cognitive dissonance mean quizlet?

Cognitive Dissonance Theory. The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.

Which theory assumes that we observe our actions for clues about our own attitudes and beliefs?

In everyday life, people observe other people’s actions and behaviors and make inferences about others’ attitudes based on what they observe. When people see how another person acts in a particular situation, they often attribute the behavior to the person’s traits and attitudes.

What does Deindividuation mean in psychology?

deindividuation, phenomenon in which people engage in seemingly impulsive, deviant, and sometimes violent acts in situations in which they believe they cannot be personally identified (e.g., in groups and crowds and on the Internet).

What is conformity in psychology?

conformity, the process whereby people change their beliefs, attitudes, actions, or perceptions to more closely match those held by groups to which they belong or want to belong or by groups whose approval they desire.

How do you counter confirmation bias?

Focus on falsification bias – Confirmation bias can be a strong influence, so you will need to actively look for evidence that disproves your point of view. Get a different perspective – Get out of your echo chamber. Approach someone you know sees things differently from you and ask them what they are seeing.

How does confirmation bias affect decision making?

This bias can lead us to make poor decisions because it distorts the reality from which we draw evidence. Under experimental conditions, decision-makers have a tendency to actively seek information and assign greater value to evidence confirming their existing beliefs rather than entertaining new ones.

What is commitment confirmation bias?

Commitment bias, also known as the escalation of commitment, describes our tendency to remain committed to our past behaviors, particularly those exhibited publicly, even if they do not have desirable outcomes.

How does commitment affect decision-making?

Commitment is the ability stick with the decision-making process and implement the decisions until completion. When management does not stick with the decision-making process, the decision may not be implemented. The company can lose sales and it can affect the organization.

How does confirmation bias and overconfidence impact our decision-making?

Confirmation bias, where we tend to seek information that confirms what we already believe, additionally distorts decision making. Together, overconfidence and confirmation bias are the cause of many decision failures.

Why do decision makers often escalate their commitment to a bad decision?

Because decision makers become caught up in the desire to finish the project, they are more likely to escalate commitment to attain completion goals even when more profitable alternatives are available. Exogenous Explanations for Failure.

What is escalation psychology?

Escalation of commitment is a human behavior pattern in which an individual or group facing increasingly negative outcomes from a decision, action, or investment nevertheless continues the behavior instead of altering course.

How do you counter escalation of commitment?

Avoiding escalation of commitment

  1. Have teams focus on the mission-critical issues first. In the early stages of your innovation process, you need to help teams address the mission-critical assumptions first. …
  2. Celebrate stopping as a win. …
  3. Make restarts possible.

What is the psychological orientation of a decision maker who makes a Maximin choice?

Maximin decision rule is used by those managers who are risk-averse. In this, managers want to minimize the negative outcome.

What best describes the psychological orientation of an individual making a Maximax choice?

The correct option is A) Pessimist

Making maximax decisions mean taking those decisions that have the maximum number of benefits.

What are the two systems of decision-making in the brain?

The human brain processes information for decision-making using one of two routes: a reflective system and a reactive (or reflexive) system.

In which step does a decision maker want to be creative in coming up with possible alternatives?

Step 4: Developing Alternatives The fourth step requires the decision maker to list viable alternative that could resolve the problem. This is the step where a decision maker wants to be creative in coming up with possible alternatives. At this stage, no effort is made to evaluate these alternatives, only to list them.

Why does a decision maker need to be creative in which steps of the decision-making process is creativity likely to be most important?

Creativity is important to decision making for a wide variety of reasons. Put simply, applying your creativity to the decision making process will make you a more effective leader. The ability to think both analytically and creatively will serve to produce more well-rounded outcomes for your business.

How does creativity affect decision-making?

Creativity allows the decision maker to more fully appraise and understand the problem . . . sometimes in ways others can’t see it. Creativity is the ability to link or combine ideas in novel ways, and their unique alternatives have to be considered useful to others.

Who is most responsible for making strategic decisions?

8. Who is most responsible for making strategic decisions? d. CEOs.

Which step is the most important step in the decision-making process?

Make your decision

Once you have taken the time to outline your goals, gather your information, and then evaluate your different possibilities, the time has come for the most important step in the decision-making process.

What are the 5 key characteristics of a strategic decision?

Strategic decision making (SOM) is of great and growing importance because of five characteristics of strategic decisions (SOs): (a) they are usually big, risky, and hard-to- reverse, with significant long-term effects, (b) they are the bridge between deliberate and emergent strategy, (c) they can be a major source of …