Philosophy

Does the definition of “mutually exclusive” include the case where neither A nor B happen?

How do you know if its mutually exclusive or not? A and B are mutually exclusive events if they cannot occur at the same time. This means that A and B do not share any outcomes and P(A AND B) = 0. What is mutually exclusive cases? Mutually exclusive is a statistical term describing two […]

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What counters are there to Spinoza’s argument that acts of free will create infinite regress?

What was Spinoza’s position on the existence of free will Why did he feel this way what do you think of his reasoning? Spinoza admits human beings are free to the extent they can substitute some other thought in place of a given moderate impulse, but he states strong desires (as in violent emotion) cannot […]

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In what way is the lambda calculus stronger than first-order logic?

Why is first order predicate logic more expressive than propositional logic? First-order logic is another way of knowledge representation in artificial intelligence. It is an extension to propositional logic. FOL is sufficiently expressive to represent the natural language statements in a concise way. First-order logic is also known as Predicate logic or First-order predicate logic. […]

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How many types of theodicy are possible?

The basic approaches to theodicy can be said to take three forms: logical/deductive, evidential/inductive, and existential. What are the three Theodicies? Thomas Aquinas, the 13th-century Dominican theologian, and in the Theodicy (1710), by the German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. According to Leibniz, there are three forms of evil in the world: moral, physical, […]

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What ifluences whether a formula of a predicate logic is true/false in some particular interpretation of a language L?

What is an interpretation in predicate logic? 1 Interpretations A sentence of a formal language (e.g., the propositional calculus, or the predicate calculus) is neither true nor false. By definition, an interpretation of a sentence of a formal language is a specification of enough information to determine whether that sentence is true or false. How […]

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Is it possible to refute subjective reality?

\\ Q: Is it possible to refute subjective reality? \\ A: No, because it is not falsifiable. Your answer is supposed to be a full answer. That means, it’s not supposed to rely on other answers, and to the reader, it should clarify your position without having to read the other answers. Does subjective reality […]

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What triggered the philosophical movement in the ancient West?

How did Western philosophy start? All Western philosophers prior to Socrates are known as the “presocratics”. Western philosophy was born during the Archaic age of Greece (ca. 800-500 BC), when Greek thinkers broke with purely mythological explanations of the world by attempting to explain nature logically. Who influenced the Western philosophy? The thinkers of ancient […]

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Is there a philosophical agreement that the universe is deterministic?

Which philosophical system is deterministic? A deterministic system is a conceptual model of the philosophical doctrine of determinism applied to a system for understanding everything that has and will occur in the system, based on the physical outcomes of causality. Is the universe deterministic? In this respect, our universe is deterministic, since quantum physics is […]

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Question about Hobbes’ distinction between Error and Absurdity?

What kind of claim about liberty does Hobbes say is absurd? These claims about freedom as non-obstruction and freedom as non-obligation under the commonwealth are more or less explicitly articulated by Hobbes in an ad hominem to would-be rebels: ‘if we take liberty in the proper sense, for corporal liberty (that is to say, freedom […]

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ResponsibIlity for outcome when deemed not responsible for activity?

What do you call a person who doesn’t take responsibility for their actions? irresponsible Add to list Share. If you’re irresponsible, you’re careless about the consequences of your actions. You can’t really rely on irresponsible people. Being irresponsible is the opposite of being responsible and careful — you do what you like and don’t care […]

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