Philosophers dealing with fundamental structure of everything using no prior assumptions?

What is the philosophy of reason according to Aristotle?

Aristotle famously described reason (with language) as a part of human nature, which means that it is best for humans to live “politically” meaning in communities of about the size and type of a small city state (polis in Greek).

What is the historical development of philosophy?

The golden age of Greek philosophy took place in Athens in the 5th century BC. The works of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle informed thousands of years of thought, becoming central to thought in the Roman world, the Middle Ages, and then resurfacing in the renaissance and later.

Does philosophy still remain the parent discipline?

Philosophy is regarded as the mother of all other disciplines because it gave birth to every other discipline and the relationship that exists between philosophy and other disciplines is the same as the relationship between a mother and her children and it continues to play the mother role by questioning their …

What is Plato’s philosophy?

In metaphysics Plato envisioned a systematic, rational treatment of the forms and their interrelations, starting with the most fundamental among them (the Good, or the One); in ethics and moral psychology he developed the view that the good life requires not just a certain kind of knowledge (as Socrates had suggested) …

What did Socrates believe in philosophy?

Philosophy. Socrates believed that philosophy should achieve practical results for the greater well-being of society. He attempted to establish an ethical system based on human reason rather than theological doctrine. Socrates pointed out that human choice was motivated by the desire for happiness.

What is knowledge according to Kant?

Kant’s theory of knowledge is summed up in a statement: “Thoughts without contents are empty; intuitions without concepts are blind.” 41. This means that knowledge. is a combination of thoughts and intuitions (contents and concepts)

What is the theory of rationalism?

rationalism, in Western philosophy, the view that regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge. Holding that reality itself has an inherently logical structure, the rationalist asserts that a class of truths exists that the intellect can grasp directly.

Why philosophy is considered as the mother of all sciences?

Philosophy is often regarded as the mother of all the sciences, because it was the pre-Socratic philosophers who first tried to study the nature of the world. They contributed a lot to the schools of ancient Greece that helped evolve science back then.

What did Aristotle believe?

Aristotle’s philosophy stresses biology, instead of mathematics like Plato. He believed the world was made up of individuals (substances) occurring in fixed natural kinds (species). Each individual has built-in patterns of development, which help it grow toward becoming a fully developed individual of its kind.

What is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant?

His moral philosophy is a philosophy of freedom. Without human freedom, thought Kant, moral appraisal and moral responsibility would be impossible. Kant believes that if a person could not act otherwise, then his or her act can have no moral worth.

What is Epicurus theory?

Epicurus taught that the basic constituents of the world are atoms, uncuttable bits of matter, flying through empty space, and he tried to explain all natural phenomena in atomic terms. Epicurus rejected the existence of Platonic forms and an immaterial soul, and he said that the gods have no influence on our lives.

What is an Epicurean philosopher?

Philosophy. Epicureanism argued that pleasure was the chief good in life. Hence, Epicurus advocated living in such a way as to derive the greatest amount of pleasure possible during one’s lifetime, yet doing so moderately in order to avoid the suffering incurred by overindulgence in such pleasure.

What is eudaimonia for Aristotle?

For Aristotle, eudaimonia is the highest human good, the only human good that is desirable for its own sake (as an end in itself) rather than for the sake of something else (as a means toward some other end).

What is the difference between hedonism and Epicureanism?

341-321 BC) has often been criticized by people who believe “hedonism” to mean indulgence in bodily pleasures. Epicurean hedonism, however, is actually based on moderation and self-control. Epicureanism aims to remove unnecessary desires, true Epicureans do not take more than what they need or act out of greed.

What is philosophical hedonism?

Philosophical hedonists tend to focus on hedonistic theories of value, and especially of well-being (the good life for the one living it). As a theory of value, hedonism states that all and only pleasure is intrinsically valuable and all and only pain is intrinsically not valuable.

Was Bentham an epicurean?

Like Epicurus, Bentham was a hedonist (Gere, 2017; Moen, 2015; Scarre, 1994). He spent his life thinking about the best way to govern (Schofield, 2009). Doing so, he argues, not only entails minimizing people’s pain, but also maximizing their pleasure.

What is altruistic hedonism?

Conversely, altruistic hedonism says that the creation of pleasure for all people is the best way to measure if an action is ethical. Regardless of the type of hedonism, critics fault it as a guide for morality because hedonism ignores all other values, such as freedom or fairness, when evaluating right and wrong.

What is utilitarian theory?

What Is Utilitarianism? Utilitarianism is a theory of morality that advocates actions that foster happiness or pleasure and oppose actions that cause unhappiness or harm. When directed toward making social, economic, or political decisions, a utilitarian philosophy would aim for the betterment of society as a whole.

What is teleological utilitarianism and hedonism?

Notes on Hedonism and Utilitarianism. Teleological (or consequentialist) theories of ethics (e.g., egoism, hedonism, utilitarianism) assume that the first task of ethics is to determine that which has value (and thus defines the good) and then to indicate how we are obligated to do what is valuable.

What is universalistic hedonism?

Definition of universalistic hedonism

: an ethical theory that the supreme good and the determining consideration of moral conduct is the greatest happiness of the greatest number : utilitarianism sense 1 —contrasted with egoistic hedonism — compare psychological hedonism.

What is dogmatic intuitionism?

Dogmatic intuitionism affirms that some ethical truths may be accepted without being intuitively apprehended. Philosophical intuitionism affirms that some ethical truths may be intuitively apprehended without being undeniably or absolutely self-evident.

What is aristippus concept of hedonism?

Hedonism and Future Concern

Aristippus identified the end as pleasure. This identification of pleasure as the end makes Aristippus a hedonist. Most of the pleasures that Aristippus is depicted as pursuing have to do with sensual gratification, such as sleeping with courtesans and enjoying fine food and old wines.