What is Dewey’s moral theory?
Dewey argued that ethical inquiry is the use of reflective intelligence to revise our judgments in light of the consequences of acting on them. Value judgments are tools for satisfactorily redirecting conduct when habits fail. As tools, they can be evaluated instrumentally.
What is Friedrich Nietzsche’s perspective on morality?
Nietzsche’s moral philosophy is primarily critical in orientation: he attacks morality both for its commitment to untenable descriptive (metaphysical and empirical) claims about human agency, as well as for the deleterious impact of its distinctive norms and values on the flourishing of the highest types of human …
What utilitarianism means?
Utilitarianism is an effort to provide an answer to the practical question “What ought a person to do?” The answer is that a person ought to act so as to maximize happiness or pleasure and to minimize unhappiness or pain.
What are the 4 aspects of morality?
In discussing the application of morality, four aspects may be considered: religious moral- ity, morality and nature, individual morality, and social morality.
What are John Dewey’s 4 impulses?
This taxonomy is based on John Dewey’s ‘four impulses of the child’: inquiry, construction, communication, and expression.
What did John Dewey believe?
John Dewey believed that a democratic society of informed and engaged inquirers was the best means of promoting human interests. To argue for this philosophy, Dewey taught at universities and wrote influential books such as Democracy and Education (1916) and Experience and Nature (1925).
What is the moral theory of utilitarianism?
Utilitarianism is one of the best known and most influential moral theories. Like other forms of consequentialism, its core idea is that whether actions are morally right or wrong depends on their effects. More specifically, the only effects of actions that are relevant are the good and bad results that they produce.
What is the basis of morality according to Kant?
By contrast, Kant locates the foundation of morality in the rational nature that we share with all possible finite rational beings. He argues that morality’s foundation lies in the “autonomy” of the rational will. Kant’s notion of autonomy is one of the more central, distinctive, and influential aspects of his ethics.
What is Mill’s theory of utilitarianism?
Mill defines utilitarianism as a theory based on the principle that “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.” Mill defines happiness as pleasure and the absence of pain.
What is Kant’s theory?
Kant’s moral theory is often referred to as the “respect for persons” theory of morality. Kant calls his fundamental moral principle the Categorical Imperative. An imperative is just a command. The notion of a categorical imperative can be understood in contrast to that of a hypothetical imperative.
What is Kant’s principle?
Kant’s ethics are organized around the notion of a “categorical imperative,” which is a universal ethical principle stating that one should always respect the humanity in others, and that one should only act in accordance with rules that could hold for everyone.