Logical fallacy: when you know the outcome, so you cannot see any other possible ex ante prediction?

What is an example of post hoc ergo propter hoc?

Comments: The Latin phrase “post hoc ergo propter hoc” means “after this, therefore because of this.” The fallacy is generally referred to by the shorter phrase, “post hoc.” Examples: “Every time that rooster crows, the sun comes up.

What is a red herring fallacy?

A red herring is a logical fallacy in which irrelevant information is presented alongside relevant information, distracting attention from that relevant information. This may be done intentionally or unintentionally. A red herring is often used in movies, television and literature.

What are the 5 logical fallacy?

Let us consider five of the most common informal logical fallacies—arguments that may sound convincing but actually rely on a flaw in logic. Also known as: misdirection, smokescreen, clouding the issue, beside the point, and the Chewbacca defense.

What is meant by post hoc fallacy?

The post hoc fallacy (formally the ‘post hoc ergo propter hoc’ fallacy, which is Latin for ‘after this, therefore because of this’) is a fallacy that assumes that if event A comes before event B, event A must have been the cause of event B (without any additional evidence of causality).

What is ad baculum fallacy?

Argumentum ad baculum (Latin for “argument to the cudgel” or “appeal to the stick”) is the fallacy committed when one makes an appeal to force to bring about the acceptance of a conclusion.

What is straw person fallacy?

This fallacy occurs when, in attempting to refute another person’s argument, you address only a weak or distorted version of it. Straw person is the misrepresentation of an opponent’s position or a competitor’s product to tout one’s own argument or product as superior.

What is an example of a post hoc fallacy?

Post hoc: This fallacy states that the first event necessarily caused the second when one event happens after another. For example, a black cat crossed my path, and then I got into a car accident. The black cat caused the car accident.

What is a non sequitur?

In Latin, non sequitur means “it does not follow.” The phrase was borrowed into English in the 1500s by people who made a formal study of logic. For them, it meant a conclusion that does not follow from the statements that lead to it.

What is an example of a straw man argument?

For example, if someone says “I think that we should give better study guides to students”, a person using a strawman might reply by saying “I think that your idea is bad, because we shouldn’t just give out easy A’s to everyone”.

What is ad Misericordiam or ad hominem?

Ad misericordiam is an argument based on a strong appeal to the emotions. Also known as argumentum ad misericordiam or appeal to pity or misery. When an appeal to sympathy or pity is highly exaggerated or irrelevant to the issue at hand, ​ad misericordiam is regarded as a logical fallacy.

Why is reductio ad absurdum a fallacy?

Reductio ad absurdum is also known as “reducing to an absurdity.” It involves characterizing an opposing argument in such a way that it seems to be ridiculous, or the consequences of the position seem ridiculous.

Why is ad Populum a fallacy?

In argumentation theory, an argumentum ad populum (Latin for “appeal to the people”) is a fallacious argument which is based on claiming a truth or affirming something is good because the majority thinks so.

What is Aboutis?

Whataboutism or whataboutery (as in “what about…?”) denotes in a pejorative sense a procedure in which a critical question or argument is not answered or discussed, but retorted with a critical counter-question which expresses a counter-accusation.

What is the false dichotomy fallacy?

In classical logic, the false dichotomy, or false dilemma, is defined as an argument where only two choices are presented yet more exist, or a spectrum of possible choices exists between two extremes.

What is division fallacy?

A fallacy of division is an informal fallacy that occurs when one reasons that something that is true for a whole must also be true of all or some of its parts. An example: The second grade in Jefferson elementary eats a lot of ice cream.

What is fallacy of Amphiboly?

The fallacy of amphiboly happens when someone uses grammar or punctuation in a way that a statement could be interpreted as having more than one meaning, so it is unclear what is really meant. Other names for the fallacy are the fallacy of ambiguity, misusing ambiguity, and the fallacy of unclearness.

What is circular reasoning fallacy?

(4) The fallacy of circular argument, known as petitio principii (“begging the question”), occurs when the premises presume, openly or covertly, the very conclusion that is to be demonstrated (example: “Gregory always votes wisely.” “But how do you know?” “Because he always votes Libertarian.”).

What is fallacy of composition and division?

The Fallacy of Composition arises when one infers that something is true of the whole from the fact that it is true of some part of the whole. Conversely, the Fallacy of Division occurs when one infers that something true for the whole must also be true of all or some of its parts.

What is tu quoque fallacy example?

“The tu quoque fallacy occurs when one charges another with hypocrisy or inconsistency in order to avoid taking the other’s position seriously. For example: Mother: You should stop smoking. It’s harmful to your health.

What is the definition of a Texas sharpshooter logical fallacy?

The Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy is a logical fallacy based on the metaphor of a gunman shooting the side of a barn, then drawing targets around the bullethole clusters to make it look like he hit the target. It illustrates how people look for similarities, ignoring differences, and do not account for randomness.