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## What is the referent of a proposition?

The referent of a sentence is **its truth-value**. Its sense is a thought (Beaney 1997, p. 156), not a token thought, but a thought in the sense of a proposition: a sharable content. Thus, in Fregean jargon, meaningful sentences express thoughts.

## What is proposition in philosophy and logic?

In philosophy, “meaning” is understood to be a non-linguistic entity which is shared by all sentences with the same meaning. Equivalently, a proposition is **the non-linguistic bearer of truth or falsity which makes any sentence that expresses it either true or false**.

## What is propositional content?

Propositional content’ is **an expression used by Searle’ to**. **denote what is common to**, for example, ‘I assert that John Smith shut the. door’, ‘I, John Smith, promise to shut the door’, ‘John Smith, shut the. door!’, ‘Did John Smith shut the door?’, and so on, namely the proposi- tion ‘John Smith shut the door’.

## Are propositions metaphysical?

The Metaphysics of Propositions

These include being the information conveyed by an utterance of a sentence, being the primary bearers of truth and falsity, being the possessors of modal properties like being possible and necessary, and being the things we assume, believe, and doubt.

## What is the truth value of a true proposition?

If a proposition is true, then we say it has a truth value of **“true”**; if a proposition is false, its truth value is “false”. For example, “Grass is green”, and “2 + 5 = 5” are propositions. The first proposition has the truth value of “true” and the second “false”.

## What is a propositional meaning?

The propositional meaning of a word or an utterance arises from the relation between it and what it refers to or describes in a real or imaginary world, as conceived by the speakers of the particular language to which the word or utterance belongs.

## How do you determine the truth value of a proposition?

**Calculating the Truth Value of a Compound Proposition**

- For a conjunction to be true, both conjuncts must be true.
- For a disjunction to be true, at least one disjunct must be true.
- A conditional is true except when the antecedent is true and the consequent false.

## How do you tell if a proposition is true or false?

**The propositions are equal or logically equivalent if they always have the same truth value**. That is, p and q are logically equivalent if p is true whenever q is true, and vice versa, and if p is false whenever q is false, and vice versa. If p and q are logically equivalent, we write p = q.

## What is the truth value?

In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is **a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth**.

## Can a proposition be always true?

**A compound proposition is called a tautology if it is always true, no matter what the truth values of the propositions** (e.g., p V ¬p =T no matter what is the value of p.

## What is a proposition that is always false?

A proposition that is always false is called **a contradiction**.

## What do you call a statement whose truth values are all true?

A statement whose truth value is always ‘true’ is called **a tautology**. A tautology is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation. A tautology is a formula which is “always true” that is, it is true for every assignment of truth values to its simple components.

## What makes a statement true?

A statement is true **if what it asserts is the case**, and it is false if what it asserts is not the case. For instance, the statement “The trains are always late” is only true if what it describes is the case, i.e., if it is actually the case that the trains are always late.

## What is a proposition in logic?

The simplest, and most abstract logic we can study is called propositional logic. • Definition: A proposition is **a statement that can be either true or false; it must be one or the other, and it cannot be both**.

## Which statement can be considered truth?

A statement is logically true **if, and only if its opposite is logically false**. The opposite statements must contradict one another. In this way all logical connectives can be expressed in terms of preserving logical truth.

## What makes a statement logical?

Logical statements have two parts, **a hypothesis that presents facts that the statement needs to be true, and a conclusion that presents a new fact we can infer when the hypothesis is true**. For a statement to be always true, there must be no counterexamples for which the hypothesis is true and the conclusion is false.

## What role does truth play in logic?

How is truth related to our objective in using logic? Based on the above definition of validity, **if logicians show that an argument is valid and if subject-matter experts show that the premises are all true, then the conclusion of the argument is also true.**

## What is formal truth in logic?

Definition of formal truth

: **the true elaboration of concepts, meanings, or implications that is relatively independent of external existence or nonexistence** the formal truth of a definition the truth that certain premises give a certain conclusion is a formal truth. — called also logical truth.

## What is contingent truth?

A contingent truth is **one that is true, but could have been false**. A necessary truth is one that must be true; a contingent truth is one that is true as it happens, or as things are, but that did not have to be true.

## What is formal truth and material truth?

FORMAL VALIDITY concerns how well an argument conforms to the rules of logic to arrive at a conclusion that must be true, assuming the premises are true. MATERIAL TRUTH concerns whether or not the conclusion of an argument is true, at least to the extent that truth can be determined.