Who is regarded as the father of modern Western philosophy?
René Descartes is generally considered the father of modern philosophy. He was the first major figure in the philosophical movement known as rationalism, a method of understanding the world based on the use of reason as the means to attain knowledge.
What is modern Western philosophy?
Modern philosophy is philosophy developed in the modern era and associated with modernity. It is not a specific doctrine or school (and thus should not be confused with Modernism), although there are certain assumptions common to much of it, which helps to distinguish it from earlier philosophy.
What is a philosophical canon?
In philosophy, we think of canons as something that should be known. The same goes for literature, visual arts or music. Someone who claims to have studied music is taken to have heard of, say, Bach. Someone who claims to have studied philosophy, is taken to have heard of, say, Margaret Cavendish.
What are the major historical periods in Western modern philosophy?
1. Western philosophy after the middle ages can be divided into four periods: the Renaissance, the Enlightenment or modern philosophy, 19th Century philosophy, and 20th Century/ the contemporary period.
Why Descartes is considered as the father of modern Western philosophy?
Becoming the Father of Modern Philosophy:
Descartes is considered by many to be the father of modern philosophy because his ideas departed widely from current understanding in the early 17th century, which was more feeling-based. While elements of his philosophy weren’t completely new, his approach to them was.
Is Aristotle the father of Western philosophy?
As the father of western logic, Aristotle was the first to develop a formal system for reasoning. He observed that the deductive validity of any argument can be determined by its structure rather than its content, for example, in the syllogism: All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.
Do other cultures have a canon?
Every literate culture has a canon; Japan, India, New Guinea, Norway, China, Germany, Russia, etc., each has a national heritage of texts (novels, epic poems, plays, stories, biographies and autobiographies, sermons, histories) it publicly esteems and preserves. Yet, a canon need not be made up of national texts alone.
What is the Western art canon?
The Western canon is the body of high culture literature, music, philosophy, and works of art that is highly valued in the West: works that have achieved the status of classics. However, not all these works originate in the Western world, and such works are also valued throughout the world.
Why the canon is problematic?
The canonical works themselves always undercut themselves. Homer, the foundation of our canon, includes deception and self-criticism and all the traits that undercut the literature itself. Likewise, as new works subvert the canon, they pass on their own cultural values, and are thus a kind of “hegemony.”
Why is Descartes the first modern philosopher?
Because he was one of the first to abandon Scholastic Aristotelianism, because he formulated the first modern version of mind-body dualism, from which stems the mind-body problem, and because he promoted the development of a new science grounded in observation and experiment, he is generally regarded as the founder of
Does Descartes believe in God?
According to Descartes, God’s existence is established by the fact that Descartes has a clear and distinct idea of God; but the truth of Descartes’s clear and distinct ideas are guaranteed by the fact that God exists and is not a deceiver. Thus, in order to show that God exists, Descartes must assume that God exists.
Is Aristotle relevant today?
In spite of the growing acceptance of new ideas in the later centuries, Aristotelian thought is still relevant in our current society. Aristotle has created a basis for a great deal of today’s scientific knowledge, such as the classification of organisms and objects.
Is Plato the father of Western philosophy?
Plato is one of the most well-known people in Western history. A philosopher and writer, he is thought by many people to be the father of Western philosophy. Little is known of Plato’s life, but some facts have come down to us. He was born in the 420s B.C. (although historians differ on the exact year of his birth).
Why is Aristotle your favorite philosopher?
Aristotle became very famous for various reasons. One reason is that he was a very important thinker of politics, ethics, phycology, etc. Today, he is still considered as one of the greatest thinkers in these areas. Another reason is that he invented science and zoology.
What did Socrates believe in philosophy?
Philosophy. Socrates believed that philosophy should achieve practical results for the greater well-being of society. He attempted to establish an ethical system based on human reason rather than theological doctrine. Socrates pointed out that human choice was motivated by the desire for happiness.
Why is Socrates the best?
A legendary figure even in his own time, he was admired by his followers for his integrity, his self-mastery, his profound philosophical insight, and his great argumentative skill. He was the first Greek philosopher to seriously explore questions of ethics.
Who invented logic?
There was a medieval tradition according to which the Greek philosopher Parmenides (5th century bce) invented logic while living on a rock in Egypt.
What are the 4 types of logic?
Popular Answers (1) There are four basic forms of logic: deductive, inductive, abductive and metaphoric inference.
Is epistemology a theory?
Epistemology is the theory of knowledge. It is concerned with the mind’s relation to reality.