This form of argument could be called the PWAGB (poisoning the well by alleging group bias) type. It is characteristically present in many cases of ad hominem arguments to be sure.
Is ad hominem the same as poisoning the well?
Poisoning the well is a logical fallacy (a type of ad hominem argument) in which a person attempts to place an opponent in a position from which he or she is unable to reply.
What is poisoning the well in philosophy?
Poisoning the well (or attempting to poison the well) is a type of informal fallacy where adverse information about a target is preemptively presented to an audience, with the intention of discrediting or ridiculing something that the target person is about to say.
What are the examples of poisoning the well?
Poisoning the well occurs when negative information that is irrelevant is presented ahead of time to discredit the argument. For example, in a political campaign, candidate 2 presents negative information about candidate 1 (true or false) so that anything that candidate says will be discounted.
Where does the expression poison the well come from?
The origin of the term lies in well poisoning, an old wartime practice of pouring poison into sources of fresh water before an invading army, to diminish the attacking army’s strength.
Why is poisoning the well a fallacy?
“Poisoning the well” is a logical fallacy that occurs when negative facts or suggestions about a speaker are given to an audience as a deterrent in an attempt to discredit what that person is about to say. It commonly takes the following form: Negative information about person A is presented.
What is the strawman fallacy?
This fallacy occurs when, in attempting to refute another person’s argument, you address only a weak or distorted version of it. Straw person is the misrepresentation of an opponent’s position or a competitor’s product to tout one’s own argument or product as superior.
What is a post hoc fallacy example?
Post hoc: This fallacy states that the first event necessarily caused the second when one event happens after another. For example, a black cat crossed my path, and then I got into a car accident. The black cat caused the car accident.
What is the false analogy fallacy?
a type of informal fallacy or a persuasive technique in which the fact that two things are alike in one respect leads to the invalid conclusion that they must be alike in some other respect.
What is a circumstantial fallacy?
Circumstantial Ad Hominem. Fallacy occurs when someone uses unsound reasoning to support a claim or argument. Circumstantial Ad Hominem occurs when someone attacks a claim by saying that the person making the claim is only making it because it’s in his/her interest or because of his/her circumstances.
What is an example of non sequitur?
non sequitur Add to list Share. A non sequitur is a conclusion or reply that doesn’t follow logically from the previous statement. You’ve probably heard an example of a non sequitur before, therefore bunny rabbits are way cuter than chipmunks.
What is a non sequitur?
(7) The fallacy of non sequitur (“it does not follow”) occurs when there is not even a deceptively plausible appearance of valid reasoning, because there is an obvious lack of connection between the given premises and the conclusion drawn from them.
What is tu quoque fallacy example?
“The tu quoque fallacy occurs when one charges another with hypocrisy or inconsistency in order to avoid taking the other’s position seriously. For example: Mother: You should stop smoking. It’s harmful to your health.
Why is anecdotal a fallacy?
A person falls prey to the anecdotal fallacy when they choose to believe the “evidence” of an anecdote or a few anecdotes over a larger pool of scientifically valid evidence. The anecdotal fallacy occurs because our brains are fundamentally lazy. Given a choice, the brain prefers to do less work rather than more.
What is Aboutis?
Whataboutism or whataboutery (as in “what about…?”) is a variant of the tu quoque logical fallacy that attempts to discredit an opponent’s position by charging hypocrisy without directly refuting or disproving the argument. Whataboutism. Tactic. Propaganda technique. Type.
What is the difference between ad hominem and tu quoque?
The Tu Quoque fallacy is a form of the ad hominem fallacy which does not attack a person for random, unrelated things; instead, it is an attack on someone for a perceived fault in how they have presented their case.
What is fallacy of Amphiboly?
The fallacy of amphiboly happens when someone uses grammar or punctuation in a way that a statement could be interpreted as having more than one meaning, so it is unclear what is really meant. Other names for the fallacy are the fallacy of ambiguity, misusing ambiguity, and the fallacy of unclearness.
What is the definition of a Texas sharpshooter logical fallacy?
The Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy is a logical fallacy based on the metaphor of a gunman shooting the side of a barn, then drawing targets around the bullethole clusters to make it look like he hit the target. It illustrates how people look for similarities, ignoring differences, and do not account for randomness.
What are the three main classifications of fallacies?
In other potentially persuasive arguments, the premises give no rational grounds for accepting the conclusion. These defective forms of argument are called fallacies. fallacies are correspondingly classified as (1) material, (2) verbal, and (3) formal.
How many fallacies are there?
There are two main types of fallacies: A formal fallacy is an argument with a premise and conclusion that doesn’t hold up to scrutiny. An informal fallacy is an error in the form, content, or context of the argument.
What is fallacy of presumption?
Fallacies of presumption are arguments that depend on some assumption that is typically unstated and unsupported. Identifying the implicit assumption often exposes the fallacy.
What is it called when someone changes the subject in an argument?
(1) Red Herring Fallacy
Also known as: misdirection, smokescreen, clouding the issue, beside the point, and the Chewbacca defense. A Red Herring argument is one that changes the subject, distracting the audience from the real issue to focus on something else where the speaker feels more comfortable and confident.
How do you respond to a red herring?
To respond to a red herring, you can ask the person who used it to justify it, point it out yourself and explain why it’s fallacious, redirect the conversation back to the original line of discussion, accept it and move on, or disengage from the discussion entirely.
What is this fallacy?
Fallacies are common errors in reasoning that will undermine the logic of your argument. Fallacies can be either illegitimate arguments or irrelevant points, and are often identified because they lack evidence that supports their claim.