Is extra-sensory perception considered a valid source of knowledge in any Western branch of philosophy?

What are the three types of extrasensory perception quizlet?

Terms in this set (10)
Said to include telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.

What is the meaning of extrasensory?

Extrasensory perception, or ESP, usually includes communication between minds involving no obvious contact (telepathy), gaining information about something without using the normal senses (clairvoyance), or predicting the future (precognition).

How many types of extraordinary perception are there?

Later Nyāya (beginning at least with Jayanta) recognizes three kinds of extraordinary perception: (i) yogic perception, (ii) perception of a universal through an individual which instantiates it, and (iii) perception of an object’s properties as mediated by memory.

How many types of extrasensory perception are there?

four types

The four types of extrasensory perception include clairvoyance, psychokinesis, telepathy and precognition.

Why is it considered as invalid knowledge?

Invalid knowledge involves memory, doubt, error, and hypothetical argument. The Nyaya theory of causation defines a cause as an unconditional and invariable antecedent of an effect.

Which philosopher said that there are five sources of valid knowledge perception inference comparison testimony and postulation?

According to Prabhakara, there are five means or sources of valid knowledge or pramanas. They are; Perception. Inference.

What is ordinary perception?

In the case of laukika or ordinary perception, there is the usual sense-object contact. Whereas, in the case of aleukia or extra-ordinary perception, the object is not ordinarily presented to the sense organ. In other words, the object is perceived by the sense organ through an unusual medium.

What is valid and invalid knowledge?

Valid knowledge is produced by the four valid means of knowledge— perception, inference, comparison and testimony. Invalid knowledge includes memory (smrti), doubt (samshaya), error (viparyaya) and hypothetical reasoning (tarka). Memory is not valid because it is not presentative cognition but a representative one.

What is valid knowledge?

valid knowledge is an apprehension of an object, which is free from defects. and not contradicted by other knowledge. And Prabh”kara holds that valid. knowledge is a direct kind of apprehension of objects.

What are the six sources of knowledge?

What are the sources of our knowledge in education? It seems to me that the traditional six ways of knowing, identified by philosophers-appeal to authority, intuition, formal logic, empiricism, pragmatism, and scepticism—should all be applied to our endeavours to know more about what is happening in education.

What are the different sources of valid knowledge?

According to the Nyaya School, there are exactly four sources of knowledge (pramanas): perception, inference, comparison, and word (verbal testimony). Knowledge obtained through each of these can, of course, still be either valid or invalid.

What is knowledge and what is truth are mainstays in the branch of philosophy known as _____?

Questions like “What is knowledge?” and “What is truth?” are mainstays in the branch of philosophy known as _____. epistemology.

Which of the following are sources of valid knowledge to the Buddhist philosophers accept?

Buddhism accepts only two pramana as valid means to knowledge: Pratyaksha and Anumaṇa.

Which is not a valid source of knowledge?

It is the knowledge of objects derived from words or sentences. But, all verbal knowledge is not considered as valid knowledge.

What is the valid source of knowledge according to Charvaka?

The Charvaka epistemology holds perception as the primary and proper source of knowledge, while inference is held as prone to being either right or wrong and therefore conditional or invalid.

Which one is not considered as pramana?

The disagreement between the schools of Hinduism has been on how to establish reliability. Some schools, such as Carvaka, state that this is never possible, and therefore Sabda is not a proper pramana.

What is prama and pramana in Indian philosophy?

pramana, (Sanskrit: “measure”) in Indian philosophy, the means by which one obtains accurate and valid knowledge (prama, pramiti) about the world.

What is the difference between prama and pramana?

The tool / means for proper perception of knowledge is called Pramana. The means of true knowledge is called Pramana. The means of real knowledge is called Pramana.
Pramata – One who obtains true knowledge.

Prama Real knowledge
Pramana Means to obtain true knowledge