Integrated Information Theory: research about concrete mechanisms, their emergence and specialization?

What is the basis of the integrated information theory?

Integrated information theory (IIT) attempts to identify the essential properties of consciousness (axioms) and, from there, infers the properties of physical systems that can account for it (postulates).

Who proposed the integrated information theory IIT of consciousness?

These questions lured me to a two-day workshop on integrated information theory at New York University last month. Conceived by neuroscientist Guilio Tononi (who trained under the late, great Gerald Edelman), IIT is an extremely ambitious theory of consciousness.

What does information mean in integrated information theory?

According to the theory, consciousness (or conscious experience) is characterized in terms of integrated information, that is, information specified by a whole system that cannot be reduced to that specified by its parts.

Can information theory explain consciousness?

In short, you cannot explain consciousness by referring to observer-relative information, because the information in question requires consciousness. Information is only information relative to some consciousness that assigns the informational status.

What is an integrated theory?

Integrated theories are theories that combine the concepts and central propositions from two or more prior existing theories into a new single set of integrated concepts and propositions.

What is Treisman’s feature integration theory?

Feature integration theory is a theory of attention developed in 1980 by Anne Treisman and Garry Gelade that suggests that when perceiving a stimulus, features are “registered early, automatically, and in parallel, while objects are identified separately” and at a later stage in processing.

When was the information integration theory developed?

Information integration theory has been developed and refined by Norman Anderson since the late 1950’s. Rather than being primarily an attitude theory or judgment theory, information integration simply attempts to describe how several coacting stimuli are combined by an individual to produce a response.

Who created Panpsychism?

Panpsychism is the view that all things have a mind or a mind-like quality. The word itself was coined by the Italian philosopher Francesco Patrizi in the sixteenth century, and derives from the two Greek words pan (all) and psyche (soul or mind).

What are Qualia philosophy?

qualia include the ways it feels to see, hear and smell, the way it feels to have a pain; more generally, what it’s like to have mental states. Qualia are experiential properties of sensations, feelings, perceptions and, in my view, thoughts and desires as well.

What is a first order mental state?

On the WIV, first-order conscious states are complex states with a world-directed part and a meta-psychological component. Robert Van Gulick (2000, 2004, 2006) has also explored the alternative that the HO state is part of an overall global conscious state.

What are the neural correlates and components of consciousness?

The Neuronal Correlates of Consciousness (NCC) constitute the smallest set of neural events and structures sufficient for a given conscious percept or explicit memory. This case involves synchronized action potentials in neocortical pyramidal neurons.

Why am I not an integrated information theory?

In his discussion, ‘Why I Am Not an Integrated Information Theorist’, Scott Aaronson has argued that it implies that consciousness is present in some very simple physical systems, because simple physical systems may have arbitrarily high levels of integrated information (Φ).

How does IIT determine consciousness?

In IIT, a system’s consciousness (what it is like subjectively) is conjectured to be identical to its causal properties (what it is like objectively). Therefore it should be possible to account for the conscious experience of a physical system by unfolding its complete causal powers (see Central identity).

What is a conscious mind?

The conscious mind involves all of the things that you are currently aware of and thinking about. It is somewhat akin to short-term memory and is limited in terms of capacity. Your awareness of yourself and the world around you are part of your consciousness.

What is the hard problem of consciousness and why is it so hard?

The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining why any physical state is conscious rather than nonconscious. It is the problem of explaining why there is “something it is like” for a subject in conscious experience, why conscious mental states “light up” and directly appear to the subject.

What is the name of Chalmers theory?

The hard problem of consciousness (Chalmers 1995) is the problem of explaining the relationship between physical phenomena, such as brain processes, and experience (i.e., phenomenal consciousness, or mental states/events with phenomenal qualities or qualia).

What is the difference between the hard problem consciousness and the easy problem of consciousness?

The easy problems of consciousness are those that seem directly susceptible to the standard methods of cognitive science, whereby a phenomenon is explained in terms of computational or neural mechanisms. The hard problems are those that seem to resist those methods.

Which psychological theory was based on the idea that conscious experience or complex object can be broken down into its basic underlying components?

Used methods such as introspection to pioneer a school of thought known as structuralism. Believed that an understanding of the basic elements of conscious experience would provide scientific basis for understanding the mind.

What did Wilhelm Wundt study?

The Father of Modern Psychology

By establishing a lab that utilized scientific methods to study the human mind and behavior, Wundt took psychology from a mixture of philosophy and biology and made it a unique field of study.

What is structuralism by Wilhelm Wundt?

Structuralism proposes that the structure of conscious experience could be understood by analyzing the basic elements of thoughts and sensations. Structuralism is considered the first school of thought in psychology, and was established in Germany by Wilhelm Wundt, and mainly associated with Edward B. Titchener.

What Did Sigmund Freud emphasize?

Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, and a primary assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect. Indeed, the goal of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious conscious.

What are Freud’s 3 theories?

In addition to these two main components of the mind, the Freudian theory also divides human personality into three major components: the id, ego, and superego.

Which theories are common to both Freud and Erikson?

Similarities between Freud and Erikson

Because of this, the two theories have similarities. Both theorists recognize the importance of the unconscious on development. They also both separate development into stages of a person’s life and utilize similar age categorizations for these developmental stages.