For there is little doubt that we possess mathematical knowledge. **The truth of mathematical platonism would therefore establish that we have knowledge of abstract (and thus causally inefficacious) objects**. This would be an important discovery, which many naturalistic theories of knowledge would struggle to accommodate.

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## Is mathematical Platonism true?

Mathematical Platonism, formally defined, is the view that (a) there exist abstract objects—objects that are wholly nonspatiotemporal, nonphysical, and nonmental—and (b) **there are true mathematical sentences that provide true descriptions of such objects**.

## What did Plato say about mathematics?

Plato believes that **the truths of mathematics are absolute, necessary truths**. He believes that, in studying them, we shall be in a better position to know the absolute, necessary truths about what is good and right, and thus be in a better position to become good ourselves.

## Is mathematics a discovery or an invention?

**Mathematics is an intricate fusion of inventions and discoveries**. Concepts are generally invented, and even though all the correct relations among them existed before their discovery, humans still chose which ones to study.

## Is mathematical Platonism plausible?

**The central core of Frege’s argument for arithmetic-object platonism continues to be taken to be plausible, if not correct, by most contemporary philosophers**. Yet its reliance on the category “singular term” presents a problem for extending it to a general argument for object platonism.

## Is mathematics invented or discovered platonism?

**Mathematical truths are therefore discovered, not invented**. The most important argument for the existence of abstract mathematical objects derives from Gottlob Frege and goes as follows (Frege 1953). The language of mathematics purports to refer to and quantify over abstract mathematical objects.

## Are most mathematicians platonists?

However, from my personal experience, **many mathematicians would not be platonists with respect to ethics**. For a second example, let us consider epistemology. For Plato, we simply ‘remembered’ the Forms, we do not discover them. A lot of mathematicians might object to this perspective.

## Who first discovered mathematics?

The earliest evidence of written mathematics dates back to the **ancient Sumerians**, who built the earliest civilization in Mesopotamia. They developed a complex system of metrology from 3000 BC.

## Is math invented or discovered Wikipedia?

Mathematical realism, like realism in general, holds that mathematical entities exist independently of the human mind. Thus **humans do not invent mathematics, but rather discover it**, and any other intelligent beings in the universe would presumably do the same.

## Are numbers invented or discovered?

**Historians believe numbers and counting expanded beyond one around 4,000 B.C. in Sumeria**, which was located in southern Mesopotamia in what is now southern Iraq. One of the first civilizations to feature cities that were centers of trade, the people of Sumeria needed new methods of counting and record-keeping.

## Is there a link between philosophy and mathematics?

Historically, **there have been strong links between mathematics and philosophy**; logic, an important branch of both subjects, provides a natural bridge between the two, as does the Philosophy of mathematics module.

## Was calculus invented or discovered?

Today it is generally believed that **calculus was discovered independently in the late 17th century** by two great mathematicians: Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz.

## Why is mathematics true?

**Mathematics itself isn’t truth, but all its results can be said to be true**. Everything in mathematics begins with a set of assumptions and definitions. All proofs are pure deductive reasoning based on those assumptions and definitions.

## Was Godel a platonist?

**Gödel was a mathematical realist, a Platonist**. He believed that what makes mathematics true is that it’s descriptive—not of empirical reality, of course, but of an abstract reality. Mathematical intuition is something analogous to a kind of sense perception.

## Do mathematical objects exist?

**Mathematical objects exist outside of concrete time, but they exist inside of mathematical time**. So it makes sense to say that a tricle changes its shape with the flow of mathematical time, and that it has three straight edges at some mathematical times, but none at other mathematical times, in the abstract world.

## Do numbers actually exist?

Certainly **numbers do not have a tangible existence in the world**. They exist in our collective consciousness. And yet they are not arbitrary products of our imaginations in the way that fictional characters are.

## Do numbers exist independently of humans?

In this view, numbers and circles and so on do exist, but **they do not exist independently of people**; instead, they are concrete mental objects—in particular, ideas in people’s heads.

## Is math based on philosophy?

Mathematics is a special case –properly speaking **it is neither a philosophy nor a science**, for all that it is closely related to both.

## Why is mathematics true?

**Mathematics itself isn’t truth, but all its results can be said to be true**. Everything in mathematics begins with a set of assumptions and definitions. All proofs are pure deductive reasoning based on those assumptions and definitions.

## What type of philosophy is platonism?

Platonism is the view that there exist such things as abstract objects — where an abstract object is an object that does not exist in space or time and which is therefore entirely non-physical and non-mental. Platonism in this sense is a **contemporary view**.

## What is a true platonic concept?

1. True Platonic Concept: Such concepts, or forms, are **completely transcendent of reality in every aspect**. These forms are 1-A in nature, as they are beyond all spatial and temporal dimensional constructs and all of reality merely “participate” in these concepts.

## Did Plato invent platonic?

Platonic relationships are those characterized by friendship and lacking romantic or sexual aspects, in contrast with romantic relationships. **They are named after Plato** and reference his writings on different types of love.

## Was Aristotle a Platonist?

“The title of this work indicates quite clearly where the author stands regarding the relationship of these two ancient philosophers: **Aristotle, contrary to the usual thinking in the philosophical literature, is a Platonist**.

## Did Plato disagree with Socrates?

Socrates has his teachings centered primarily around epistemology and ethics while Plato was quite concerned with literature, education, society, love, friendship, rhetoric, arts, etc. **Socrates disagreed with the concept of overreaching**; he describes it as a foolish way to live. 4.

## What do Socrates Plato and Aristotle have in common?

Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle **shared an interest in epistemology**.

## Was Plato taught by Socrates?

Plato was a philosopher during the 5th century BCE. **He was a student of Socrates** and later taught Aristotle. He founded the Academy, an academic program which many consider to be the first Western university. Plato wrote many philosophical texts—at least 25.

## What did Plato discover?

He found that **there are only five solid shapes whose sides are made from regular polygons** (triangles, squares, pentagons, hexagons, etc) – for example, the cube. Plato was so impressed with this discovery that he was convinced that atoms of matter must derive from these five fundamental solids.

## Does Socrates believe in God?

**Socrates also believes in deity**, but his conception is completely different from the typical Athenians. While to the Athenians gods are human-like and confused, Socrates believes god to be perfectly good and perfectly wise. His god is rationally moral. His god also has a purpose.