I have trouble understanding this fallacy: “If A, then B. Therefore if not-B, then not-A.”?

What is the fallacy of redefinition?

This happens when the redefinition applies to some things that the original definition did not, and fails to apply to other things that the original did. For example, if we redefine “bird” as “flying animal”, then bats would be “birds” (low), while flightless birds would not (high).

What are the 5 fallacies?

Let us consider five of the most common informal logical fallacies—arguments that may sound convincing but actually rely on a flaw in logic.

  • (1) Red Herring Fallacy. …
  • (2) Strawman Fallacy. …
  • (3) Slippery Slope Fallacy. …
  • (4) Begging the Question Fallacy. …
  • (5) Post Hoc Fallacy.

Aug 15, 2018

What are the 3 Formal fallacies?

The standard Aristotelian logical fallacies are:

  • Fallacy of four terms (Quaternio terminorum);
  • Fallacy of the undistributed middle;
  • Fallacy of illicit process of the major or the minor term;
  • Affirmative conclusion from a negative premise.

What is an example of non sequitur fallacy?

Examples of Non Sequitur Fallacy

Since you are a good person, therefore, I’m a good person.”) or “Denying the Antecedent” (“If I’m an adult, then I’m intelligent. I’m not an adult. Therefore, I’m not intelligent.”). They defy the basic rules of reason and are usually based upon unsound arguments.

What is the strawman fallacy?

This fallacy occurs when, in attempting to refute another person’s argument, you address only a weak or distorted version of it. Straw person is the misrepresentation of an opponent’s position or a competitor’s product to tout one’s own argument or product as superior.

What is an example of a straw man argument?

For example, if someone says “I think that we should give better study guides to students”, a person using a strawman might reply by saying “I think that your idea is bad, because we shouldn’t just give out easy A’s to everyone”.

What is ad Verecundiam fallacy?

Argumentum ad Verecundiam fallacy (argument from inappropriate authority): an appeal to the testimony of an authority outside of the authority’s special field of expertise.

What is Steelmanning an argument?

A steel man argument (or steelmanning) is the opposite of a straw man argument. The idea is to help one’s opponent to construct the strongest form of their argument.

What is a non sequitur?

Definition of non sequitur

2 : a statement (such as a response) that does not follow logically from or is not clearly related to anything previously said We were talking about the new restaurant when she threw in some non sequitur about her dog.

Is post hoc a logical fallacy?

Post hoc (a shortened form of post hoc, ergo propter hoc) is a logical fallacy in which one event is said to be the cause of a later event simply because it occurred earlier.

What is a slippery slope fallacy?

slippery slope argument, in logic, the fallacy of arguing that a certain course of action is undesirable or that a certain proposition is implausible because it leads to an undesirable or implausible conclusion via a series of tenuously connected premises, each of which is understood to lead, causally or logically, to …

Is a strawman a non sequitur?

Also known as irrelevant reason and fallacy of the consequent. As illustrated below, nonsequiturs are the products of many different kinds of errors in reasoning, including begging the question, false dilemma, ad hominem, the appeal to ignorance, and the straw man argument.

What is stacking the deck fallacy?

The term stacking the deck is a fallacy in which any evidence that supports an opposing argument is simply rejected, omitted, or ignored. Stacking the deck is a technique that’s commonly used in propaganda.

What is poisoning the well fallacy?

Poisoning the well is a logical fallacy (a type of ad hominem argument) in which a person attempts to place an opponent in a position from which he or she is unable to reply.

What is the difference between non sequitur and red herring?

Non sequitur: occurs when a conclusion doesn’t logically follow its premises. Example: because you borrowed my psyche notes, I flunked my Spanish test (no connection between premise and conclusion). Red herring: introduces unrelated information to distract the audience’s attention.

What is the difference between red herring and straw man?

A red herring is a fallacy that distracts from the issue at hand by making an irrelevant argument. A straw man is a red herring because it distracts from the main issue by painting the opponent’s argument in an inaccurate light.

What is the difference between a non sequitur and a post hoc ergo propter hoc argument?

The non sequitur fallacy means that you’ve made a conclusion that is not justified on the grounds given. The post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy means that you have concluded that because something happened earlier, it must be the cause of a later event.

What is bandwagon logical fallacy?

The bandwagon fallacy is also sometimes called the appeal to common belief or appeal to the masses because it’s all about getting people to do or think something because “everyone else is doing it” or “everything else thinks this.” Example: Everyone is going to get the new smart phone when it comes out this weekend.

What is cherry picking in writing?

Cherry picking, suppressing evidence, or the fallacy of incomplete evidence is the act of pointing to individual cases or data that seem to confirm a particular position while ignoring a significant portion of related and similar cases or data that may contradict that position.

What is begging the question fallacy?

The fallacy of begging the question occurs when an argument’s premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it. In other words, you assume without proof the stand/position, or a significant part of the stand, that is in question. Begging the question is also called arguing in a circle. Examples: 1.