How is conceptual irreducibility of the mental possible given a physicalist ontology?

What is Physicalist theory?

In philosophy, physicalism is the metaphysical thesis that “everything is physical”, that there is “nothing over and above” the physical, or that everything supervenes on the physical.

What is physicalism about the mind?

Physicalism about the mind is the metaphysical view that all mental phenomena are ultimately physical phenomena, or necessitated by physical phenomena. There are various mental-physical relations proposed by physicalists to account for their claim. One relation is identity.

What are the two forms of physicalism?

There are two main categories of Physicalism, Reductive and Non-Reductive: Reductive Physicalism, which asserts that all mental states and properties can be, or will eventually be, explained by scientific accounts of physiological processes and states, has been the most popular form during the 20th Century.

What is the difference between dualism and physicalism?

The Physicalism view claim that an entire human being comprises of a physical entity with various physical properties. On the other hand, the dualism view claims that human beings have a dual entity comprising a physical entity (the body) and a non-physical entity (the mind).

What is physicalism in simple terms?

Physicalism simply states that everything in this world is physical, or as contemporary philosophers sometimes say, everything supervenes on the physical. Physicalism implies that everything is made up of matter and therefore takes up space.

What is the best argument for physicalism?

The most promising such argument is the causal argument, which may be summarised thus: (i) mental properties have physical effects; (ii) physics is causally complete (all physical effects have physical causes); (iii) effects are not generally overdetermined; so (iv) mental properties are physical.

How do we get from the representational theory of mind to the computational theory of mind?

A computer cannot compute an actual object but must interpret and represent the object in some form and then compute the representation. The computational theory of mind is related to the representational theory of mind in that they both require that mental states are representations.

Is functionalism a physicalist theory?

In this sense of physicalism, most functionalists have been physicalists. Further, functionalism can be modified in a physicalistic direction, for example, by requiring that all properties quantified over in a functional definition be physical properties. Type physicalism is often contrasted with token physicalism.

What is the problem with physicalism?

The Knowledge Argument Against Physicalism. The knowledge argument is one of the main challenges to physicalism, the doctrine that the world is entirely physical. The argument begins with the claim that there are truths about consciousness that cannot be deduced from the complete physical truth.

Why is physicalism true?

Physicalism is true at a possible world w iff for every particular (object, event or process) x that exists at w, there is some physical particular y such that x = y. But (3) offers neither necessary nor sufficient conditions for physicalism.

Is physicalism a form of dualism?

Overview. Professor Kagan discusses the two main positions with regard to the question, “What is a person?” On the one hand, there is the dualist view, according to which a person is a body and a soul. On the other hand, the physicalist view argues that a person is just a body.

What is the difference between physicalism and materialism?

materialism, also called physicalism, in philosophy, the view that all facts (including facts about the human mind and will and the course of human history) are causally dependent upon physical processes, or even reducible to them.

What is the difference between naturalism and physicalism?

As a first pass, naturalism is the doctrine that: The natural world is the whole world, While physicalism holds: The physical world is the whole world. to be a truism: The physical world is a natural world.

What is the opposite of physicalism?

Idealism. Idealism is the opposite of physicalism. Instead of saying, “everything is fundamentally physical”, it says “everything is fundamentally mental.” This idea is especially popular in Eastern philosophy, which thinks our minds “construct” the world around us. II.

Is determinism a theory?

Determinism is the philosophical view that all events are determined completely by previously existing causes. Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have developed from diverse and sometimes overlapping motives and considerations.

Is determinism possible?

Determinism in nature has been shown, scientifically, to be false. There is no real debate about this among physicists.

How do you explain determinism?

Determinism entails that, in a situation in which a person makes a certain decision or performs a certain action, it is impossible that he or she could have made any other decision or performed any other action. In other words, it is never true that people could have decided or acted otherwise than they actually did.

Is the human brain deterministic?

Of course, like everything else in the universe, our mind/brain is deterministic, if you accept that every event has a reason or cause.

What are the three types of determinism?

They are: logical determinism, theological determinism, psychological determinism, and physical determinism. Logical determinism maintains that the future is already fixed as unalterably as the past. Theological determinism argues that since God is omniscient, He knows everything, the future included.

Does our brain work in binary?

Unlike a digital computer, the brain does not use binary logic or binary addressable memory, and it does not perform binary arithmetic. Information in the brain is represented in terms of statistical approximations and estimations rather than exact values.