A cause of itself is a thing whose essence alone necessitates its existence, and which cannot be conceived as non-existing. The causal independence of substance leads Spinoza to the conclusion that substance must exist by virtue of its own essence (E 1p7) – otherwise, the existence of substance could not be explained.
How does Spinoza define and explain substance?
According to Spinoza, everything that exists is either a substance or a mode (E1a1). A substance is something that needs nothing else in order to exist or be conceived. Substances are independent entities both conceptually and ontologically (E1d3).
What does Spinoza mean by self caused?
In Id1, Spinoza defines self-causation (causa sui) as “that whose essence involves existence or [sive] that whose nature cannot be conceived except as existing.” (Spinoza’s sive should not be read in a disjunctive sense, nor is it usually stating a mere equivalence.
What did Spinoza identify as an attribute of substance?
Attributes furnish Spinoza’s substance with variety while preventing it from being an ephemeral, homogenous totality—an eleatic “one” of which nothing can be said or known. They constitute variety without dissolving the infinite substance into multiple substances.
How does Spinoza define substance quizlet?
Definition of substance. in itself conceived through itself. Metaphysical rationalism. everything has a cause or reason, there are no brute facts.
What is different about Descartes and Spinoza’s concepts of substance?
However, whereas Descartes held that distinct bodies are distinct extended substances, Spinoza famously holds that there is but one substance—God or nature—and that distinct bodies are merely modes of this one substance, considered as extended.
What is the theory of Spinoza?
Spinoza attempts to prove that God is just the substance of the universe by first stating that substances do not share attributes or essences, and then demonstrating that God is a “substance” with an infinite number of attributes, thus the attributes possessed by any other substances must also be possessed by God.
What is a substance in philosophy?
In philosophy of mind: Substance. Substances are the basic things—the basic “stuff”—out of which the world is composed. Earth, air, fire, and water were candidate substances in ancient times; energy, the chemical elements, and subatomic particles are more contemporary examples.
Who said finite substance?
For Descartes there are fundamentally two kinds of finite substance—thinking substances or minds and extended substances or bodies.
What is an infinite substance?
A substance is something that exists independently. The only thing that truly exists independently is an infinite substance for it doesn’t rely on anything else for its existence. In this context ‘infinite substance’ means ‘God’.
How are Descartes and Spinoza similar?
Both Spinoza and Descartes subscribe to the rationalist epistemology which claims that knowledge must be self-evident and derived from reasoning, rather than experience. As such, both philosophers believe in apriori knowledge, in which true knowledge is derived prior to experiences as experiences can be deceiving.
What is the substance according to Descartes?
Descartes believed in only two kinds of substance: material body, which is defined by extension, and mental substance, which is defined by thought, which, in this context, is more or less equivalent to consciousness.
What makes a substance a substance?
Lesson Summary. A substance is simply a pure form of matter. In other words, a substance is matter than contains only one type of atom or molecule. Pure substances can be further divided into two sub-categories: elements and compounds.
What does it mean for a person to have substance?
Someone who has a lot of power, money, or influence. I think my parents were disappointed that I chose not to marry a woman of substance, but they seem to have gotten over it.
Why did Descartes believe in substance dualism?
Ultimately, Descartes’ view is dualist because, although he renders all earthly substances material (and understandable to science), one thing remains that is a true immaterial substance with an essence: the human soul.
What is one reason that Descartes offers for believing that the self is a thinking substance and can exist without a body?
Terms in this set (10) What is one reason that Descartes offers for believing that the self is a thinking substance and can exist without a body? I can conceive of myself existing without a body, but I cannot conceive of myself existing without a mind.