How do the outer hair cells amplify the traveling wave?

The cochlear amplifier is essentially a positive feedback loop within the cochlea that amplifies the traveling wave. Thus, vibrations within the organ of Corti are sensed and then force is generated in synchrony to increase the vibrations.

What do the outer hair cells do how do they do it?

The outer hair cells mechanically amplify low-level sound that enters the cochlea. The amplification may be powered by the movement of their hair bundles, or by an electrically driven motility of their cell bodies. This so-called somatic electromotility amplifies sound in all land vertebrates.

How are outer hair cells stimulated?

Outer Hair Cells Move in Response to Efferent Stimulation and Thereby Tune the Inner Hair Cells. Outer hair cells change their axial dimensions in response to electrical stimulation. Hyperpolarization lengthens the cells, and depolarizations shorten them.

What do outer hair cells do in cochlea?

The function of the outer hair cell in hearing is now perceived as that of a cochlear amplifier that refines the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the mechanical vibrations of the cochlea.

What is the function of hair cells outer and inner?

The inner hair cells are sensory, and the nerves extending from them send acoustic information to the brain. In contrast, the outer hair cells are motile and have a role in amplifying and modifying the movement of the basilar membrane.

What are outer hair cells connected to?

Each hair cell connects to about 10 auditory nerve endings! These auditory neurons live in the Organ of Corti, which rides on the basilar membrane and houses one row of inner hair cells and three rows of outer hair cells. The top of the Organ of Corti is the tectorial membrane.

How do hair cells stimulate the auditory nerve quizlet?

Hair cells: Cells that support the stereocilia that transduce mechanical movement in the cochlea and vestibular labyrinth into neural activity sent to the brain stem; some hair cells also receive inputs from the brain, when they are bent they release the neurotransmitter glutamate which cause nearby auditory neurons to

How the efferent control of outer hair cells can regulate the sound induced movements of the basilar membrane?

Outer hair cells (OHCs) amplify the sound-evoked motion of the basilar membrane to enhance acoustic sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents inhibit OHCs to reduce the sound-evoked response of cochlear afferent neurons.

Which nerve is stimulated by hair cells?

the auditory nerve

Hair cell mediated responses of the auditory nerve to sinusoidal electrical stimulation of the cochlea in the cat. Hear Res. 1993 May;67(1-2):55-68. doi: 10.1016/0378-5955(93)90232-p.

What neurotransmitter do outer hair cells release?

acetylcholine (ACh)

Abstract. The dominant efferent innervation of the cochlea terminates on outer hair cells (OHCs), with acetylcholine (ACh) being its principal neurotransmitter.

What are the differences between outer hair cells and inner hair cells quizlet?

Out hair cells are arranged in 3 or 4 rows on the lateral side of the organ of corti. The tallest stereocilia on the top of outer hair cells are imbedded within the soft undersurface of the tectorial membrane. The inner hair cells are shaped like a goblet or flask.

How do hair cells work?

Cochlear hair cells are the sensory cells of the auditory system. These cells possess stereocilia connected to the tectorial membrane. During auditory stimulation, sound waves in the cochlea cause deflection of the hair cell stereocilia, which creates an electrical signal in the hair cell.

How does sound travel in the ear?

Sound waves enter the outer ear and travel through a narrow passageway called the ear canal, which leads to the eardrum. The eardrum vibrates from the incoming sound waves and sends these vibrations to three tiny bones in the middle ear. These bones are called the malleus, incus, and stapes.

What happens when sound waves reach your outer ear?

The Outer Ear

It collects sound waves and channels them into the ear canal (external auditory meatus), where the sound is amplified. The sound waves then travel toward a flexible, oval membrane at the end of the ear canal called the eardrum, or tympanic membrane. Sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate.

How does sound travel through the ear quizlet?

The eardrum vibrates from the incoming sound waves and sends these vibrations the malleus, incus, and stapes. The ossicles increase the sound vibrations and send them to the cochlea in the inner ear. Once the vibrations cause the fluid inside the cochlea to ripple, a traveling wave forms along the basilar membrane.

Why does sound travel fastest in solids and least through gases?

Sound travels more quickly through solids than through liquids and gases because the molecules of a solid are closer together and, therefore, can transmit the vibrations (energy) faster. Sound travels most slowly through gases because the molecules of a gas are farthest apart.

Do sound waves travel fastest in solids prove your answer?

Solids: Sound travels fastest through solids. This is because molecules in a solid medium are much closer together than those in a liquid or gas, allowing sound waves to travel more quickly through it. In fact, sound waves travel over 17 times faster through steel than through air.

Where does sound travel fastest?

solids

Sound waves can only travel through a solid, liquid or gas medium. They travel fastest in solids, then liquids and slowest in gases.

What affects the speed of sounds as it travels?

The speed of the sound depends on the density and the elasticity of the medium through which it travels. In general, sound travels faster in liquids than in gases and quicker in solids than in liquids. The greater the elasticity and the lower the density, the faster sound travels in a medium.

Where do sound waves travel slowest?

gases

As a rule sound travels slowest through gases, faster through liquids, and fastest through solids.

Can sound travel in outer space?

Sound does not travel at all in space. The vacuum of outer space has essentially zero air. Because sound is just vibrating air, space has no air to vibrate and therefore no sound. If you are sitting in a space ship and another space ship explodes, you would hear nothing.

At what temperature does sound travel fastest?

Does air temperature affect the speed of sound? Kim Strong, a professor of physics at the University of Toronto says the answer is yes, in fact sound travels faster when the air is hotter. At 25 C, the speed of sound is 1,246 kilometres per hour.

Why does sound travel faster in water?

Sound travels faster in water compared with air because water particles are packed in more densely. Thus, the energy the sound waves carry is transported faster. This should make the sound appear louder.

How does sound travel underwater experiment?

Above the surface, the sound waves only vibrate your eardrum (unless the sound is very loud). When your head is submerged, your skull also vibrates with the sound because it is close to the same density and elasticity as water. Below the surface, sound waves pass directly through the water and into your head.

How do sound waves travel through water?

When underwater objects vibrate, they create sound-pressure waves that alternately compress and decompress the water molecules as the sound wave travels through the sea. Sound waves radiate in all directions away from the source like ripples on the surface of a pond.