How can I test whether Dorsal Raphe Nucleus (DRN) activity at night is related to variations in mood?

What does the dorsal raphe nucleus do?

The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is a heterogeneous brainstem nucleus located in the midbrain and pons. Via widespread projections, which target a multitude of brain areas, its neurons utilize many transmitters to control various physiological functions, including learning, memory and affect.

What is DRN serotonin?

Anatomical and physiological evidence also revealed that the dorsal raphé nucleus (DRN), a major source of serotonin, and the dopamine system receive common inputs from brain regions associated with appetitive and aversive information processing.

Where is the raphe nucleus?


Abstract. The raphe nuclei are distributed near the midline of the brainstem along its entire rostro-caudal extension. The serotonergic neurons are their main neuronal components, although a proportion of them lie in subdivisions of the lateral reticular formation.

Where does the dorsal raphe nucleus project to?

lateral hypothalamus

The nucleus raphes dorsalis have been known to project to the lateral hypothalamus, along with the locus coeruleus and the tuberomammillary nucleus. The neurotransmitters of these three aforementioned nuclei, which project to the lateral hypothalamus, are serotonin, norepinephrine and histamine respectively.

What is the DRN in the brain?

The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is a major source of neuromodulators in the central nervous system, and is the largest of the serotonergic nuclei, containing approximately a third of all serotonergic neurons (5-HT neurons) in the brain (Hornung, 2010).

How many raphe nuclei are there?

The raphe nuclei (Greek: ῥαφή, “seam”) are a moderate-size cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem. They have 5-HT1 receptors which are coupled with Gi/Go-protein-inhibiting adenyl cyclase. They function as autoreceptors in the brain and decrease the release of serotonin.

What is a raphe in anatomy?

1 : the seamlike union of the two lateral halves of a part or organ (such as the tongue) having externally a ridge or furrow. 2a : the part of the stalk of an anatropous ovary that is united in growth to the outside covering and forms a ridge along the body of the ovule.

Where is serotonin produced in the brain?

In the central nervous system (CNS), serotonin is almost exclusively produced in neurons originating in the raphe nuclei located in the midline of the brainstem. These serotonin-producing neurons form the largest and most complex efferent system in the human brain.

How do you pronounce raphe nucleus?

noun, plural ra·phae [rey-fee].

How do you pronounce dorsal raphe?

Dorsal raphe nucleus dorsal raphe nucleus please subscribe and thanks for watching.

How do you spell Rugae?

noun, plural ru·gae [roo-jee, -gee]. Usually rugae. Biology, Anatomy. a wrinkle, fold, or ridge.

How do you pronounce coeruleus?


  1. (Classical) IPA: /koe̯ˈ, [koe̯ˈrʊɫ̪eʊs̠]
  2. (Ecclesiastical) IPA: /t͡ʃeˈ, [t͡ʃeˈruːleus]