Extra-classical receptive fields are surprising, but retinal ganglion receptive fields are not. Why?

Why there is the receptive field for ganglion cells in the retina?

For example, the receptive field of a ganglion cell in the retina of the eye is composed of input from all of the photoreceptors which synapse with it, and a group of ganglion cells in turn forms the receptive field for a cell in the brain. This process is called convergence.

Are the receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells complex?

But in each succeeding layer of the retina, the receptive fields become increasingly complex, and they become even more complex when it comes to the neurons of the visual cortex. Here is an example of this complexity.

What sort of receptive fields do retinal ganglion cells have?

Receptive field subregions: The area within the receptive field is subdivided into two regions, center and surround. There are two primary types of ganglion cell receptive fields: ON center/OFF surround cell: Flashing small bright spot in the center subregion increases the cell’s response.

Do retinal ganglion cells have center surround receptive fields?

A key assumption in many models for retinal ganglion cell encoding is that receptive field surrounds are added only to the fully formed center signal. But anatomical and functional observations indicate that surrounds are added before the summation of signals across receptive field subunits that creates the center.

What are retinal ganglion cells?

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the bridging neurons that connect the retinal input to the visual processing centres within the central nervous system.

How do retinal ganglion cells work?

Retinal ganglion cells process visual information that begins as light entering the eye and transmit it to the brain via their axons, which are long fibers that make up the optic nerve. There are over a million retinal ganglion cells in the human retina, and they allow you to see as they send the image to your brain.

What are the differences between the receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells and those of neurons in the primary visual cortex?

In the primary visual and somatosensory cortex, receptive fields are selective for the orientation or direction of motion of a stimulus, whereas in higher visual cortical areas, neurons may respond best to images of faces or objects.

What are retinal ganglion cells sensitive to?

About 10% of all retinal ganglion cells are parasol cells, and these cells are part of the magnocellular pathway. They receive inputs from relatively many rods and cones. They have fast conduction velocity, and can respond to low-contrast stimuli, but are not very sensitive to changes in color.

What do retinal ganglion cells respond to?

Ganglion cells respond best to small spots of light, small rings of light, or edges of light in a center-surround pattern. The center-surround receptive field is created by the amacrine and horizontal cells via their lateral communication with bipolar and ganglion cells.

What is the difference between on center ganglion cells and off-center ganglion cells?

The major functional subdivision of ganglion cells in the mammalian retina is into ON- and OFF-center ganglion cells. ON-center cells are depolarized by illumination of their receptive field center (RFC), while OFF-center cells are depolarized by decreased illumination of their RFC.

What are visual receptive fields?

In the visual system, visual receptive fields are volumes in visual space. For example, the receptive field of a single photoreceptor is a cone-shaped volume comprising all the visual directions in which light will alter the firing of that cell.

What is a receptive field in the visual system?

Definition. The term receptive field refers to the region of visual space where changes in luminance influence the activity of a single neuron. Also known as the classical receptive field (CRF).

Which ganglion cells have the largest receptive field?

Non-M, non-P ganglion cells, which have not yet been well characterized, account for the remaining 5%. In addition to being larger themselves, type M ganglion cells have larger receptive fields, propagate action potentials more quickly in the optic nerve, and are more sensitive to low-contrast stimuli.

What is the shape of a receptive field of a ganglion cell?

slightly elliptical

All classes of ganglion cells tended to have slightly elliptical receptive field centres. Major axes of over half of all receptive fields were oriented within 20 degrees of horizontal.

Where do retinal ganglion cells synapse?

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the output neurons of the retina. In the retina, RGCs synapse with bipolar and amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) to receive excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs respectively.

What type of visual stimuli are retinal ganglion cells selective for?

Computing the direction of motion for a moving objector scene is the most complex information processing task performed by vertebrate retinas. Directionally selective retinal ganglion cells respond to stimuli moving in a preferred direction and are inhibited by stimuli moving in the opposite or null direction.

Where do retinal ganglion cells project directly to?

Ganglion cell axons exit the retina through a circular region in its nasal part called the optic disk (or optic papilla), where they bundle together to form the optic nerve.

Where do retinal ganglion axons which carry left visual field information synapse?

The information from the eye is carried by the axons of the retinal ganglion cells (the 3° visual afferent) to the midbrain and diencephalon.

Where are ganglion cells?

Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) found in the ganglion cell layer of the retina. Cells that reside in the adrenal medulla, where they are involved in the sympathetic nervous system’s release of epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood stream. Cells of the sympathetic ganglia.

How many ganglion cells are in retina?

1.2 million retinal ganglion cells

There are about 120 million rods and 6 million cones, whilst the output of the retina is transmitted by around 1.2 million retinal ganglion cells.