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## What did Kurt Gödel discover?

Gödel did little original work in logic after this, though he did publish a remarkable paper in 1949 on general relativity: he discovered **a universe consistent Einstein’s equations in which there were “closed timelike lines”**–in such a universe, one could visit one’s own past! Gödel struck most people as eccentric.

## Do philosophers use logic?

The term classical logic refers primarily to propositional logic and first-order logic. **It is usually treated by philosophers as the paradigmatic form of logic** and is used in various fields.

## Who founded philosophy of logic?

philosopher Parmenides

There was a medieval tradition according to which the Greek philosopher **Parmenides** (5th century bce) invented logic while living on a rock in Egypt.

## Was Gödel a Platonist?

**Gödel was a mathematical realist, a Platonist**. He believed that what makes mathematics true is that it’s descriptive—not of empirical reality, of course, but of an abstract reality. Mathematical intuition is something analogous to a kind of sense perception.

## Does Gödel’s incompleteness theorem apply to logic?

**Gödel’s incompleteness theorems are among the most important results in modern logic**. These discoveries revolutionized the understanding of mathematics and logic, and had dramatic implications for the philosophy of mathematics.

## What does Gödel’s incompleteness theorem show?

In 1931, the Austrian logician Kurt Gödel published his incompleteness theorem, a result widely considered one of the greatest intellectual achievements of modern times. The theorem states that **in any reasonable mathematical system there will always be true statements that cannot be proved**.

## Who is the father of logic and philosophy?

**Aristotle**: The Father of Logic (The Greatest Greek Philosophers) Library Binding – Import, .

## Who is the real father of philosophy?

**Socrates of Athens** (l. c. 470/469-399 BCE) is among the most famous figures in world history for his contributions to the development of ancient Greek philosophy which provided the foundation for all of Western Philosophy. He is, in fact, known as the “Father of Western Philosophy” for this reason.

## Who is famous for logical thinking?

Aristotle

**Aristotle** was the first logician to attempt a systematic analysis of logical syntax, of noun (or term), and of verb. He was the first formal logician, in that he demonstrated the principles of reasoning by employing variables to show the underlying logical form of an argument.

## Is Gödel’s incompleteness theorem true?

Kurt Gödel’s incompleteness theorem **demonstrates that mathematics contains true statements that cannot be proved**. His proof achieves this by constructing paradoxical mathematical statements.

## Who is the father of modern proof theory that proved the completeness of first order logic?

Kurt Gödel

One sometimes says this as “anything true is provable”. It makes a close link between model theory that deals with what is true in different models, and proof theory that studies what can be formally proven in particular formal systems. It was first proved by **Kurt Gödel** in 1929.

## Can something be true but unprovable?

Second, the most famous example of a “true but unprovable” statement is the so-called **Gödel formula in Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem**. The theory here is something called Peano arithmetic (PA for short). It’s a set of axioms for the natural numbers.

## What is an unprovable truth?

**Any statement which is not logically valid (read: always true)** is unprovable. The statement ∃x∃y(x>y) is not provable from the theory of linear orders, since it is false in the singleton order. On the other hand, it is not disprovable since any other order type would satisfy it.

## How do you prove unprovable?

In this categorization, **an axiom is something that cannot be built upon other things and it is too obvious to be proved** (is it?). So axioms are unprovable. A theorem or lemma is actually a conjecture that has been proved. So “a theorem that cannot be proved” sounds like a paradox.

## Are there true statements that Cannot be proven?

But more crucially, **the is no “absolutely unprovable” true statement**, since that statement itself could be used as a (true) axiom. A statement can only be provable or unprovable relative to a given, fixed set of axioms; it can’t be unprovable in and of itself.

## What is the Gödel effect?

In contrast, on the description theory of names, for every world w at which exactly one person discovered incompleteness, ‘Gödel’ refers to **the person who discovered incompleteness at w**—there is no guarantee that this will always be the same person.

## How does the incompleteness theorem relate to God?

**The Incompleteness of the universe isn’t proof that God exists**. But… it IS proof that in order to construct a rational, scientific model of the universe, belief in God is not just 100% logical… it’s necessary. Euclid’s 5 postulates aren’t formally provable and God is not formally provable either.