Development of social cognition as an alternative to the obstetrical dilemma?

What is the obstetrical dilemma and how does that relate to bipedalism?

The obstetrical dilemma proposes that a trade-off exists because the female pelvis has two competing roles: birthing large-brained infants and bipedal walking.

What is the obstetrical dilemma hypothesis and how did it become popular?

The obstetrical dilemma hypothesis suggests that in order to successfully undergo childbirth, the infant must be born earlier and earlier, thereby making the child increasingly developmentally premature. The concept of the infant being born underdeveloped is called altriciality.

What is the obstetrical dilemma hypothesis?

The obstetrical dilemma hypothesis states that the human female pelvis represents a compromise between designs most suitable for childbirth and bipedal locomotion, respectively. This hypothesis has been challenged recently on biomechanical, metabolic, and biocultural grounds.

What is the study of obstetrics?

Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. As a medical specialty, obstetrics is combined with gynecology under the discipline known as obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN), which is a surgical field.

What is the best hypothesis for why bipedalism evolved?

Carrying Objects Long Distance

The most accepted of the bipedalism hypotheses is the idea that humans began walking on two feet instead of four in order to free their hands to do other tasks. Primates had already adapted the opposable thumb on their forelimbs before bipedalism happened.

Why is childbirth so difficult for humans?

Prior research has suggested the reason childbirth is so much more difficult in humans compared to apes or other animals is because we evolved to walk upright, and because our babies have very large heads. As humans developed an upright gait, our pelvises changed in ways that made the birth canal narrower.

What is delivering a baby called?

An obstetrician specializes in obstetrics, which deals with all aspects of pregnancy, from prenatal care to post-natal care. An obstetrician delivers babies, whereas a gynecologist does not.

Why do humans only have one baby at a time?

During reproduction, only one sperm is allowed to fuse with one female egg and then the entries of other sperms are prevented, because it can cause problem in the fertilization process. This can lead to improper growth or baby.

What is the difference between Gynaecology and obstetrics?

Obstetrics (the OB) involves care during pre-conception, pregnancy, childbirth, and immediately after delivery. Gynecology (the GYN) involves care of all women’s health issues.

What is obstetric operation?

The Obstetric operation essentially refers to a Caesarean Section (CS). This operation is usually a joy to perform and is most often associated with a positive outcome. However it can be very stressful, as events can suddenly turn for the worse, with two or more lives at stake.

Why is it called obstetrics?

The earliest definition of obstetrics is “the science of midwifery,” from the Modern Latin obstetricus, “pertaining to a midwife,” which has the root word obstetrix, “midwife,” or literally “one who stands opposite.”

Is obstetrics the same as labor and delivery?

Obstetrics deals with the care of the pregnant women, the unborn baby, labor and delivery and the immediate period following childbirth.

What is obstetric term?

: a branch of medical science that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.

What is obstetrical history?

An obstetric history involves asking questions relevant to a patient’s current and previous pregnancies. Some of the questions are highly personal, therefore good communication skills and a respectful manner are absolutely essential.

What are the major components of obstetrical history?

Obstetric History

  • Gravidity. Number of times pregnant.
  • Parity. Number of live births.
  • Miscarriages.
  • Terminations.
  • Previous Pregnancies. Length, mode of delivery.
  • Length of Pregnancy. Gestational age at delivery.
  • Induction. Spontaneous / induced.
  • Mode of Delivery. Vaginal, forceps, suction, elective / emergency caesarean.

What is obstetric data?

Abstract. Obstetrical data management systems (OBDMSs) are computer systems designed to interface with fetal and maternal monitors. This allows monitoring and charting records to be created and maintained electronically and to be viewed from centralized workstations.

What does obstetrical care mean?

Obstetrical care is a term used to describe the management of both normal and complicated pregnancy as well as the delivery and postpartum periods. Because pregnancy is one of the most important parts of a woman’s life, it is essential to have the proper medical care to have a healthy pregnancy.

What is an obstetric complication?

An obstetric complication is defined as an acute condition arising from a direct cause of maternal death, such as antepartum or postpartum hemorrhage, obstructed labor, postpartum sepsis, complications of abortion, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, ectopic pregnancy, and ruptured uterus, or indirect causes such as anemia, …

What is the purpose of performing an obstetric ultrasound?

One of the main purposes of an obstetrical ultrasound is to confirm that you are in fact pregnant. They can be performed at any time during your pregnancy, but the earliest that an embryo is usually visible with a heartbeat is at about six weeks gestation.

What is basic emergency obstetric care?

Basic emergency obstetric and newborn care is critical to reducing maternal and neonatal death. This care, which can be provided with skilled staff in health centres, large or small, includes the capabilities for: Administering antibiotics, uterotonic drugs (oxytocin) and anticonvulsants (magnesium sulphate);

Why emergency obstetric care is important?

Essential obstetric care was proposed on the basis of the idea, in which obstetric complications can be predicted and prevented by identifying “high risk” in all pregnant women and conversely, emergency obstetric care emphases on the identification, referral, and treatment of women with obstetric complications on the

What are the components of emergency obstetric care?

A set of seven key obstetric services, or “signal functions,” has been identified as critical to basic emergency obstetric and newborn care (BEmONC): administration of parenteral antibiotics, administration of parenteral anticonvulsant, administration of parenteral uterotonic agents, removal of retained products (MVA), …