Counterfactual conditionals (also subjunctive or X-marked) are conditional sentences which discuss what would have been true under different circumstances, e.g. “If Peter believed in ghosts, he would be afraid to be here.” Counterfactuals are contrasted with indicatives, which are generally restricted to discussing …
What is an example of a counterfactual?
A counterfactual explanation describes a causal situation in the form: “If X had not occurred, Y would not have occurred”. For example: “If I hadn’t taken a sip of this hot coffee, I wouldn’t have burned my tongue”. Event Y is that I burned my tongue; cause X is that I had a hot coffee.
Do counterfactuals have truth value?
Counterfactuals are not truth-functional.
What is a counterfactual argument example?
A counterfactual idea, assumption, or argument. noun. A counterfactual is defined as a statement that is not true. In the sentence “If dogs had no ears, they could not hear” the statement “if dogs had no ears” is an example of a counterfactual because dogs DO have ears..
What is counterfactual theory?
The basic idea of counterfactual theories of causation is that the meaning of causal claims can be explained in terms of counterfactual conditionals of the form “If A had not occurred, C would not have occurred”.
What is a counterfactual statement?
A counterfactual is interpreted as a statement about how things occur in other possible worlds governed by the same laws of nature. Roughly: in every possible world that is relevantly similar to the existing world but in which the wind does not reach 50 miles per hour, the bridge does not collapse.
What is another word for counterfactual?
In this page you can discover 14 synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, and related words for counterfactual, like: hypothetical, wrong, true, contrary to fact, counterfactuals, frequentist, a posteriori, causality, false, specious and spurious.
What is a counterfactual in research?
Counterfactual analysis enables evaluators to attribute cause and effect between interventions and outcomes. The ‘counterfactual’ measures what would have happened to beneficiaries in the absence of the intervention, and impact is estimated by comparing counterfactual outcomes to those observed under the intervention.
How do you make a counterfactual?
One common approach to constructing a counterfactual is to simply compare outcomes for the same entity (village, individual, forest, farm, firm, etc.) before and after it has received the conservation intervention. In this case, the pre-intervention outcome is used as the counterfactual outcome.
What is the counterfactual problem?
Counterfactual thinking is a concept in psychology that involves the human tendency to create possible alternatives to life events that have already occurred; something that is contrary to what actually happened. Counterfactual thinking is, as it states: “counter to the facts”.