Can someone explain to me Nozick’s argument against epistemic closure?

Why does Nozick deny closure?

On the other hand, some epistemologists, including Robert Nozick, have denied closure principles on the basis of reliabilist accounts of knowledge. Nozick, in Philosophical Explanations, advocated that, when considering the Gettier problem, the least counter-intuitive assumption we give up should be epistemic closure.

What is epistemic closure principle?


Epistemic closure principles state that members of an epistemic set (such as my justified beliefs) are closed under a given relation (which may be a non-epistemic relation, like entailment, or an epistemic one, such as known entailment).

Which theory of knowledge denies closure?

Rejecting knowledge closure is therefore the key to resolving skepticism. Given the importance of insight into the problem of skepticism, they would seem to have a good case for denying closure. Let us consider the story they present, and some worries about its acceptability.

What is the purpose of the closure principle?

Definition: The principle of closure states that people will fill in blanks to perceive a complete object whenever an external stimulus partially matches that object. Even when we’re missing information, we tend to make sense of our environment by filling in the gaps to see a complete object.

What does the word epistemology means?

epistemology, the philosophical study of the nature, origin, and limits of human knowledge. The term is derived from the Greek epistēmē (“knowledge”) and logos (“reason”), and accordingly the field is sometimes referred to as the theory of knowledge.

What is a Contextualist approach?

Contextualism, also known as epistemic contextualism, is a family of views in philosophy which emphasize the context in which an action, utterance, or expression occurs.

Who invented radical skepticism?

In modern philosophy, two representatives of radical skepticism are Michel de Montaigne (most famously known for his skeptical remark, Que sçay-je ?, ‘What do I know?’ in Middle French; modern French Que sais-je ?) and David Hume (particularly as set out in A Treatise of Human Nature, Book 1: “Of the Understanding”).

What is an abominable conjunction?

The abominable conjunction isn’t “S knows H, and believes ~BIV because it follows from H, but doesn’t know ~BIV”; it’s just “S knows H but doesn’t know ~BIV.” That infelicity doesn’t seem at all mitigated if – as is, surely, almost always the case – she doesn’t believe ~BIV because it follows from H.

What is the no false lemmas condition?

Under No False Lemmas, knowledge is restricted to justified true beliefs that are based upon other truths, or facts of the matter – one cannot just so happen to know something in the way that the JTB definition of knowledge allows.

What are the 3 types of epistemology?

There are three main examples or conditions of epistemology: truth, belief and justification.

What are examples of epistemology?

An example of epistemology is a thesis paper on the source of knowledge. (uncountable) The branch of philosophy dealing with the study of knowledge; theory of knowledge, asking such questions as “What is knowledge?”, “How is knowledge acquired?”, “What do people know?”, “How do we know what we know?”.

What is another word for epistemic?

In this page you can discover 13 synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, and related words for epistemic, like: teleological, epistemological, kantian, epistemology, rationality, essentialist, objectivist, folk-psychology, deontological, ontological and intentionality.

What is the opposite of epistemic?

Antonyms & Near Antonyms for epistemic. nonmental.

What is the opposite of epistemology?

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that studies knowledge or knowing.It is the knowledge to examine reality. Ontology is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature of human beings existence as individual, in society and in the universe. It deals abut the reality (truth).

What is epistemic violence?

Epistemic violence is a failure of an audience to communicatively. reciprocate, either intentionally or unintentionally, in linguistic exchanges. owning to pernicious ignorance. Pernicious ignorance is a reliable ignorance or. a counterfactual incompetence that, in a given context, is harmful.

What is epistemic ambivalence?

Epistemic ambivalence is when you may know the truth of a situation but cannot say which truth it is, because there is more than one option.

What is an epistemic state?

Epistemic states are linguistically expressed through the verbs of propositional attitude (believe, know, be convinced, have doubt, amongst many others). These denote the attitude (or state) of a subject to a proposition and are formulated by sentences of the form “S v that p” (v: propositional attitude verb).

How does Spivak conceptualize the notion of epistemic violence in characterizing the Subaltern?

In that essay, Spivak is particularly concerned with characterizing the “subaltern,” which is a person of marginalized status who is also provided with no voice, and she characterizes the silencing of the subaltern class as doing epistemic violence to them by removing their ability to speak for themselves on every …

Why does Spivak Criticise the subaltern Studies group?


Gayatri Spivak intervened in postcolonial literary studies with her seminal essay “Can the Subaltern Speak?” and, alongside Rosalind O’Hanlon, critiqued the subaltern studies collective for not going far enough in their consideration of gender in questions of subalternity.

What is Spivak saying in Can the Subaltern Speak?

The basic claim and opening statement of “Can the Subaltern Speak?” is that western academic thinking is produced in order to support western economical interests. Spivak holds that knowledge is never innocent and that it expresses the interests of its producers.

Who does Spivak refer to through subaltern?

the proletariat

In discussions of the meaning of the term subaltern in the work of Gramsci, Spivak said that he used the word as a synonym for the proletariat (a code word to deceive the prison censor to allow his manuscripts out the prison), but contemporary evidence indicates that the term was a novel concept in Gramsci’s political …

What is the main problem with Gayatri Spivak’s view of the subaltern?

A critical analysis of Spivak’s classic 1988 postcolonial studies essay, in which she argues that a core problem for the poorest and most marginalized in society (the subalterns) is that they have no platform to express their concerns and no voice to affect policy debates or demand a fairer share of society’s goods.

Is Spivak a postcolonial feminist?

The ‘postcolonial feminism’ advocated by feminist theorists such as Spivak, Deepika Bahri, and Chandra Mohanty thus requires the necessary acknowledgement of the heterogeneity of women (and not woman) as the subjects of their own history and discourse—a heterogeneity subverted by the ethnocentrism of certain feminist …