Which causal inference book should I read?
Causal Inference in Statistics: A Primer
This book is probably the best first book for the largest amount of people. It is a clear, gentle, quick introduction to causal inference and SCMs. Pearl is the first author, and he has made many important contributions to causal inference, pioneering SCMs.
What is a counterfactual causal effect?
In the counterfactual model, a causal factor is a necessary factor without which the outcome (e.g. treatment success) would not have occurred. As the condition is not required to be sufficient for the outcome, multiple causal factors are allowed.
What is a counterfactual in philosophy?
Counterfactual: A counterfactual assertion is a conditional whose antecedent is false and whose consequent describes how the world would have been if the antecedent had obtained. The counterfactual takes the form of a subjunctive conditional: If P had obtained, then Q would have obtained.
What is a counterfactual approach?
a particular intervention. IE involves COUNTERFACTUAL analysis (CAUSAL. mechanism), that is, a comparison between what actually happened. and what would have happened in the absence of the intervention.
What is counterfactual example?
A counterfactual explanation describes a causal situation in the form: “If X had not occurred, Y would not have occurred”. For example: “If I hadn’t taken a sip of this hot coffee, I wouldn’t have burned my tongue”. Event Y is that I burned my tongue; cause X is that I had a hot coffee.
What is another word for counterfactual?
In this page you can discover 14 synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, and related words for counterfactual, like: hypothetical, wrong, true, contrary to fact, counterfactuals, frequentist, a posteriori, causality, false, specious and spurious.
What is counterfactual PDF?
Counterfactuals are mental representations of alternatives to the past and produce consequences that are both beneficial and aversive to the individual. These apparently contradictory effects are integrated in a functionalist model of counterfactual thinking.
What type of reasoning is reasoning by counterfactuals?
Counterfactual conditionals are used extensively in causal reasoning. This observation has motivated a philosophical tradition that aims to provide a counterfactual analysis of causation.
What is a counterfactual argument?
A counterfactual idea, assumption, or argument. noun. A counterfactual is defined as a statement that is not true. In the sentence “If dogs had no ears, they could not hear” the statement “if dogs had no ears” is an example of a counterfactual because dogs DO have ears..
Why do we use counterfactuals?
Counterfactuals serve a preparative function, and help people avoid past blunders. Counterfactual thinking also serves the affective function to make a person feel better. By comparing one’s present outcome to a less desirable outcome, the person may feel better about the current situation (1995).
What is a counterfactual in research?
Counterfactual analysis enables evaluators to attribute cause and effect between interventions and outcomes. The ‘counterfactual’ measures what would have happened to beneficiaries in the absence of the intervention, and impact is estimated by comparing counterfactual outcomes to those observed under the intervention.
What is causal effect in research?
Therefore, causal effect means that something has happened, or is happening, based on something that has occurred or is occurring. A simple way to remember the meaning of causal effect is: B happened because of A, and the outcome of B is strong or weak depending how much of or how well A worked.”
How do you make counterfactuals?
To generate counterfactuals, DiCE implements two kinds of methods: model-agnostic and gradient-based. Model-Agnostic: These methods apply to any black-box classifier or regressor.
Currently supported methods are:
- Randomized Search.
- Genetic Search.
- KD Tree Search (for counterfactuals from a given training dataset)
What is a counterfactual outcome?
The outcome that an individual would have experienced if he had received a particular treatment or exposure value. There are as many counterfactual outcomes as possible treatment values.