How did John Stuart Mill defend freedom of opinion?
Freedom of speech. On Liberty involves an impassioned defense of free speech. Mill argues that free discourse is a necessary condition for intellectual and social progress. We can never be sure, he contends, that a silenced opinion does not contain some element of the truth.
Why Mill believed that individual freedom ought to be protected?
Mill argued that “an atmosphere of freedom” was necessary to assure all people the opportunity to develop their individuality. He condemned British society of his day for its suffocating conformity.
What group does Mill exclude from his view of liberty?
Mill was also selective in whom to apply his principle to, excluding cultures he considered “backward” and people who could not support their families. Although these unresolved issues in Mill’s essay require further thought (and perhaps revision), his ideas are still relevant to modern society and issues.
Does Mill agree with the Golden Rule?
But perhaps, the best way in which Mill’s principle of utilitarianism coincides with that of the Golden Rule is found in his idea of ‘good character’. Mill argues that the best proof of good character is good actions, and a good moral disposition is not enough. You must ‘do unto others…’ the key word being ‘do’.
How does Mill think we can determine which kinds of pleasure are most valuable?
Mill delineates how to differentiate between higher- and lower-quality pleasures: A pleasure is of higher quality if people would choose it over a different pleasure even if it is accompanied by discomfort, and if they would not trade it for a greater amount of the other pleasure.
What did John Mill believe about those who sacrifice their own happiness for that of others?
Mill admits that the willingness to sacrifice one’s happiness for that of others is the highest virtue. Furthermore, he says that to maintain an attitude of such willingness is actually the best chance of gaining happiness, because it will lead a person to be tranquil about his life and prospects.
What is Mill’s main argument in On Liberty?
Mill’s Liberty Principle and the main thread of his argument is concerned with protecting the individual from the intrusion of society. Mill maintains that the individual has absolute right over his independence and that freedom to express this independence must be protected.
Which of the following is the main worry Mill is addressing in our reading from On Liberty?
Mill addresses the question of whether people should be held to agreements that cause themselves harm, such as selling oneself into slavery. Mill says that a person should not be held to this agreement, because he is thereby permanently giving up his freedom, and thereby undermining the very significance of freedom.
What does Mill think is the most important reason for individuality?
Mill believes that individuality is essential to individual well being or happiness. Those who are hammered into conformity cannot reach their full potential intellectually or creatively. What, according to Mill, is the great benefit of cultivating our individuality?
Does Mill believe all pleasures are equal?
For Mill, as we’ve just seen, it is ultimately unsatisfying to think that all pleasures are, morally speaking, equal. He is persuaded that some pleasures are better than others. This raises a difficult issue for any utilitarian: By what criteria do you measure the relative goodness of different pleasures?
What were the main similarities and differences between Bentham and Mill?
Both thought that the moral value of an act was determined by the pleasure it produced. Bentham considered only quantity of pleasure, but Mill considered both quantity and quality of pleasure. Bentham’s utilitarianism was criticised for being a philosophy “worthy of only swine”.
Does your own happiness matter more than the happiness of others according to Mill?
Mill argues that the only proof that something is desirable is that people actually desire it. It is a fact that happiness is a good, because all people desire their own happiness. Thus, it is clear that happiness is at least one end, and one criterion, of morality.
How does Mill distinguish between things that are rights and things to which we have no right?
Mill argues that justice can be distinguished from other forms of morality by looking at the difference between perfect and imperfect obligations. Imperfect obligations are those that no one person has the right to require of another. Perfect obligations are those that a person may demand of another.
Why is general happiness rather than individual happiness the ethical standard according to Mill?
Mill argues that happiness is the sole basis of morality, and that people never desire anything but happiness. He supports this claim by showing that all the other objects of people’s desire are either means to happiness, or included in the definition of happiness.
Why does Mill distinguish different pleasures?
On both dimensions of quality and quantity, Mill considers, only those who are familiar with both pleasures can answer. Moreover, he believes that between pleasures derived from higher faculties and lower ones, the former will be chosen by those who experienced both on the ground of quality.
On what grounds does Mill think some pleasures can be judged higher or better than others?
Mill argues that all pleasures are qualitatively the same. Mill argues that we are incapable of choosing a good we know to be less valuable than some alternative. Mill believes that utilitarianism is compatible with Christian moral principles. According to Mill, moral rules admit of no exceptions.
What does Mill think we need to consider when making moral decisions?
Mill thinks it is critical to living a morally good life that we are unbiased in our consideration of other beings’ happiness. Every sentient being’s potential pleasure or pain counts. This principle of equal consideration, Mill argues, is the secret to moral progress.
How does Mill understand happiness?
Mill defines “happiness” as pleasure and freedom from pain. In his Utilitarianism, he describes the best life as “an existence exempt as far as possible from pain, and as rich as possible in enjoyments.” This theory of well-being is called “hedonism.”
How does Mill respond to those who point out that some people desire virtue as good in itself quizlet?
How does Mill respond to those who point out that some people desire virtue as good in itself? By arguing that virtue, like power, fame, or money, can become an ingredient of (and not just a means to) happiness.
What were John Stuart Mill’s beliefs?
He believed that a “desire of perfection” and sympathy for fellow human beings belong to human nature. One of the central tenets of Mill’s political outlook is that, not only the rules of society, but also people themselves are capable of improvement.
Which of the following does Mill say is a common meaning of the term justice?
Mill argues that justice is:
valuable because it is socially useful. valuable by a standard that exists independent of utility. at odds with social utility.
Which of the following does Mill describe as conflict involving justice?
Humans are more intelligent, and can sympathize more broadly than animals can. What does Mill describe as a conflict involving justice? When people should be punished. there is a strong utilitarian interest in protecting them.