Which is related to lateral inhibition?
Lateral inhibition involves the suppression of neurons by other neurons. Stimulated neurons inhibit the activity of nearby neurons, which helps sharpen our sense perception. Visual inhibition enhances edge perception and increases contrast in visual images.
What is lateral inhibition in the retina?
Lateral inhibition in the retina occurs as the feedback from the interneurons, horizontal cells and amacrine cells, which receive excitatory inputs from photoreceptors and bipolar cells, respectively, inhibit the excited photoreceptors and bipolar cells and their neighborhood.
What is lateral inhibition in physiology?
Lateral inhibition is the phenomenon in which a neuron’s response to a stimulus is inhibited by the excitation of a neighboring neuron. Lateral inhibition has been experimentally observed in the retina and the LGN of organisms .
What are center surround cells?
The center-surround receptive field organization allows ganglion cells to transmit information not merely about whether photoreceptor cells are exposed to light, but also about the differences in firing rates of cells in the center and surround. This allows them to transmit information about contrast.
What is an example of lateral inhibition?
in perception, a mechanism for detecting contrast in which a sensory neuron is excited by one particular receptor but inhibited by neighboring (lateral) receptors. In vision, for example, lateral inhibition is seen in neurons that respond to light at one position but are inhibited by light at surrounding positions.
What are lateral interactions?
Lateral interactions occur at all levels in the retina, from the Photoreceptors, the input neurons of the retina, through to ganglion cells ( Retinal ganglion cells), the output neurons of the retina. Lateral interactions may be positive or negative.
Why do we have lateral inhibition?
Lateral inhibition disables the spreading of action potentials from excited neurons to neighboring neurons in the lateral direction. This creates a contrast in stimulation that allows increased sensory perception.
What is the role of convergence and lateral inhibition in neural integration?
Convergence allows a neuron to receive input from many neurons in a network. Lateral inhibition. A presynaptic cell excites inhibitory interneurons and they inhibit neighboring cells in the network.
What does center off surround mean?
referring to a concentric receptive field in which stimulation of the center excites the neuron of interest, whereas stimulation of the surround inhibits it. See center–surround antagonism.
What is the purpose of on center and off-center ganglion cells?
That is, when illumination increases, ON-center ganglion cells receive excitation from ON-cone bipolar cells and disinhibition from OFF-cone bipolar cells, while OFF-center ganglion cells receive inhibition from ON-cone bipolar cells and reduced excitation from OFF-cone bipolar cells.
Why do we have on center and off-center cells?
On-center GCs produce more action potentials when stimulated by a bright light in the center of their receptive field, and are inhibited by stimuli delivered to the surround. Off-center GCs are stimulated by surround stimuli, and inhibited by center stimuli.
How do horizontal cells contribute to the on center off surround properties of retinal ganglion cell receptive fields?
7. These findings suggest that horizontal cells contribute to the surround of ganglion cells and bipolar cells primarily through a feedback pathway onto cone photoreceptor cells.
What are the two types of center-surround receptive fields?
Center-surround receptive fields have both excitatory and inhibitory areas. This observation has an interesting consequence for how our visual system operates.
What is a center-surround receptive field quizlet?
Center-surround receptive field. – Center-surround receptive field – receptive field in which the center of the receptive field responds differently to stimulation than the surrounding portion of the field.
What happens when the entire receptive field of an on center cell is covered by a spot of light ie both inner and outer portions of the receptive field )?
What happens when the entire receptive field of an ON-center cell is covered by a spot of light (i.e. both inner and outer portions of the receptive field)? Cells firing stays the same.
What is the receptive field?
The receptive field encompasses the sensory receptors that feed into sensory neurons and thus includes specific receptors on a neuron as well as collectives of receptors that are capable of activating a neuron via synaptic connections.
Which hemisphere of the brain represents the right visual field quizlet?
The division of the retina into temporal and nasal is called a hemiretina. Both eyes provide the left hemisphere information about the right visual field, and both eyes provide the right hemisphere information about the left visual field.
Where do the axons that make up the optic nerve first synapse in the brain as they travel to the primary visual cortex?
The optic tract enters the brain and ascends to synapse in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. From there, axons project to the primary visual cortex, also called the striate cortex or V1, located in the occipital lobe. Figure 20.6. A horizontal section of the brain.
Where do the axons that make up the optic nerve first synapse in the brain as they travel to the primary visual cortex Group of answer choices?
1. The geniculostriate pathway synapses first in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and then in the primary visual cortex. 2.
What is the relationship between V1 and the retina?
What is the relationship between V1 and the retina? V1 contains a map of the retina. What is one difference between simple cells and complex cells? A complex cell will respond to a dark bar on a light background and a light bar on a dark background, but a simple cell will only respond to one or the other.
Is Akinetopsia real?
Gross akinetopsia is an extremely rare condition. Patients have profound motion blindness and struggle in performing the activities of daily living. Instead of seeing vision as a cinema reel, these patients have trouble perceiving gross motion.
Which statement best expresses the relationship between the retina and the fovea?
Which of the following best expresses the relationship between the retina and the fovea? The retina is part of the fovea. Light passes through the fovea on its way to the retina.
Are complex cells off center?
These cells also have either an on-center receptive field (excited when the stimulus is presented directly on the center of the receptive field) or off-center receptive field (excited when the stimulus is presented off the center of the receptive field).
What differentiates a Hypercomplex from a complex cell?
Hypercomplex cells were originally characterized as the superordinate class of visual processing cells above complex and simple cells. Whereas complex cells were sensitive to moving stimuli of specific orientations that travel in a specific direction, simple cells only responded to properly oriented linear stimuli.
Are complex cells orientation selective?
A majority of simple and complex cells are directionally-selective i.e. they respond best to oriented stimuli moving in a particular direction.