What are the main arguments for the existence of God?
The argument claims that the universe is strongly analogous, in its order and regularity, to an artifact such as a watch; because the existence of the watch justifies the presumption of a watchmaker, the existence of the universe justifies the presumption of a divine creator of the universe, or God.
What are the three main arguments for the existence of God philosophy?
Much of the discussion has focused on Kant’s “big three” arguments: ontological arguments, cosmological arguments, and teleological arguments.
What is the theological argument for the existence of God?
The basic premise, of all teleological arguments for the existence of God, is that the world exhibits an intelligent purpose based on experience from nature such as its order, unity, coherency, design and complexity.
What are the three main arguments for the existence of God quizlet?
three sorts of epistemic arguments for theism: ‘cosmological arguments’, ‘teleological arguments’ and ‘ontological arguments’.
Which of the following is an argument used to explain the existence of God quizlet?
Which of the following is an argument used to explain the existence of God? Indecision, not making a decision, is actually a decision in itself.
How does the first cause argument prove the existence of God?
Scientific discoveries, eg the Big Bang theory , can be seen to support the first cause argument. If God caused the ‘Big Bang’, then God is the ‘first cause’ that brought the cosmos (universe) into existence. It confirms to the theist that there is purpose to the cosmos and a place for God as its ‘creator’.
What is the contingency argument for God?
The “Argument from Contingency” examines how every being must be either necessary or contingent. Since not every being can be contingent, it follow that there must be a necessary being upon which all things depend. This being is God.
What is theistic argument?
The theist believes that every object in the natural world exists because God creates and conserves that object; every finite thing has the character of being dependent on God.
How are the cosmological and ontological arguments different quizlet?
1. Ontological argument: Tries to show God exists by appealing only to truths of reason, which we can discover by reflection. 2. Cosmological argument: Appeals to empirically verifiable facts and argues that the best explanation for these facts is that God exists.
What is theodicy the study of?
theodicy, (from Greek theos, “god”; dikē, “justice”), explanation of why a perfectly good, almighty, and all-knowing God permits evil.
What does Russell say is the foundation of religion?
Russell writes: Fear is the basis of religious dogma, as of so much else in human life. Fear of human beings, individually or collectively, dominates much of our social life, but it is fear of nature that gives rise to religion.
What does Russell argue is the foundation of religion and cruelty How does he argue we should respond to this foundation?
What does Russell argue is the foundation of religion and cruelty? How does he argue we should respond to this foundation? He believes they used fear, intimidation, and the sense of security to subdue people. He stated that we should conquer the world by intelligence and be held down by the terrors of world.
What Bertrand Russell said about God?
Russell, Bertrand, 1872-1970. “I think all the great religions of the world – Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, and Communism – both untrue and harmful. It is evident as a matter of logic that, since they disagree, not more than one of them can be true.”
What was Bertrand Russell’s philosophy?
Russell was a believer in the scientific method, that science reaches only tentative answers, that scientific progress is piecemeal, and attempts to find organic unities were largely futile. He believed the same was true of philosophy.
What is the conclusion of Russell’s essay?
Interestingly, in his Autobiography, Russell summarizes his conclusion in Human Society in Ethics and Politics in the following manner: “The conclusion that I reach is that ethics is never an independent constituent, but is reducible to politics in the last analysis.” (523) He reiterates that there is no such thing as …
What is the value of philosophy according to Russell’s essay?
The primary value of philosophy according to Russell is that it loosens the grip of uncritically held opinion and opens the mind to a liberating range of new possibilities to explore.
What is Russell’s theory of definite descriptions?
It is also known as Russell’s theory of descriptions (commonly abbreviated as RTD). In short, Russell argued that the syntactic form of descriptions (phrases that took the form of “The aardvark” and “An aardvark”) is misleading, as it does not correlate their logical and/or semantic architecture.
What does Russell say about the need for observation?
Via The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell: If the matter is one that can be settled by observation, make the observation yourself.
What does Russell mean fact and particular?
A fact is not a particular existing thing such as Plato, the river or the mountain. Russell states that when he speaks of a ‘fact’, he does not mean one of the simple things in the world, he means that a certain thing has a certain quality, or that certain things have a certain relation.
What are the two types of description that Russell speaks of?
3. Motivations for Russell’s Theory of Descriptions. There are three main motivations for the theory of descriptions; the first is metaphysical, the second involves semantical concerns in the philosophy of language, and the third is epistemological.
Are names descriptions?
But the direct-reference theory is significantly stronger than a simple denial of Russell’s doctrine that ordinary names are abbreviated definite descriptions. The theory holds that names are not even similar to definite descriptions.
What is proper name according to Russell?
Bertrand Russell was the first to propose a descriptivist theory of names, which held that a proper name refers not to a referent, but to a set of true propositions that uniquely describe a referent – for example, “Aristotle” refers to “the teacher of Alexander the Great”.